Welcome to International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Engineering Research (IJETER)

Volume 4, Issue 2, February (2016)

S.No Tile & Authors Full Text
1 Continued Finite Fractions and Euclid’s Algorithm
Parvinder Singh
Abstract – A "general" continued fraction representation of a real number x is one of the form 〖x= a〗_0 + b_1/(a_1+b_2/(a_2+b_3)/(a_3+⋯………@ + b_n/a_N ))) Where a_0 〖 ,a〗_1, . ... and b_1, b_2…..are integers. In this article we define convergents of a finite continued fraction and continued fractions with positive quotients and discuss fraction algorithm and Euclid’s algorithm.
2 An Efficient Single Sign-On Mechanism to Enhance Security by Using Hash Function
M.Shanmuga Priya, D.Rajapriya, V.Sathya Priya
Abstract – The security of Single sign-on (SSO) has been receiving a significant amount of attention in the field of distributed computer network, because SSO schemes are vulnerable to malicious attacks. A number of secure authentication schemes based on asymmetric cryptography have been proposed to prevent such attacks. However, these schemes are not suitable for highly dynamic environments. Hence, this still calls for an efficient authentication scheme for distributed computer network. The aim of this project is implement the decentralized light weight authentication scheme called trust-extended authentication mechanism for distributed computer networks. It satisfies the following security requirements: anonymity, privacy, mutual authentication.
3 Link-Stability and Energy Aware Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
D.Rajapriya, S.Dinesh Krishnan, V.Sathya Priya
Abstract – MOBILE ad hoc networks (MANETs) have attracted a lot of attention due to the popularity of mobile devices and the advances in wireless communication technologies. A MANET is a peer-to-peer multihop mobile wireless network that has neither a fixed infrastructure nor a central server. Each node in a MANET acts as a router, and communicates with each other. The mobility constraints of mobile nodes may lead to cause problem in link stability. On the other hand, in order to support node mobility, scalable routing strategies have been designed and these protocols try to consider the path duration in order to respect some QoS constraints and to reduce the route discovery procedures. Often energy saving and path duration and stability can be two contrasting efforts and trying to satisfy both of them can be very difficult. A scalable routing protocol called LAER, based on the joint metric of link stability and energy drain rate, has been proposed. It is based on the local topology knowledge and it makes use of a greedy technique based on a joint metric and a modified perimeter forwarding strategy for the recovery from local maximum. The main aim of this work is to propose an optimization routing model within a MANET. The model attempts to minimize simultaneously the energy consumption of the mobile nodes and maximize the link stability of the transmissions, when choosing paths for individual transmissions. The idea of considering, at the same time, energy consumption and link stability is motivated by the observation that most routing protocols tend to select shorter routes, in this way high efficiency in using wireless bandwidth and increase path stability are ensured. However, such routes may suffer from higher energy consumption, since higher transmission ranges are needed. We enhance our work to detect the selfish node present in the network, providing wrong information about their energy and recent data access details. Due to such wrong information we should reroute our packet delivery path. Such selfish nodes do not consume any energy such as CPU power, battery and also bandwidth for retransmitting the data of other nodes and they reserve them only for themselves. Every node in a MANET calculates credit risk information on other connected nodes individually to measure the degree of selfishness.
4 On the Negative Pell Equation
S.Vidhyalakshmi, M.A.Gopalan, E.Premalatha, S.Sofia Christinal
Abstract – The binary quadratic equation represented by the negative pellian is analyzed for its distinct integer solutions .A few interesting relations among the solutions are also given. Further, employing the solutions of the above hyperbola, we have obtained solutions of other choices of hyperbolas, parabolas and special Pythagorean triangle.
5 Cooling Load Estimation for Library
Anurag Kumar Singh, Ms Akanksha Mishra, Mr. K. K. Dubey
Abstract – Objective for calculation of Thermal load (heat gain) of room is done for the selection of right size of air conditioner, in order to achieve optimize energy at required temperature, humidity and proper distribution of air. Heat gain into the room depends on many factors such as orientation of the room, latitudes, size of room, number of person, electrical equipment, materials used in construction of wall and roof, numbers of doors and window and their sizes. Cooling Load Temperature Difference / Cooling Load Factor (CLTD/CLF) method based on ISHRAE (Indian Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers) Handbook is used for determining heat gain in the room. In this paper load calculation is done for the library. Through the calculation it is obtained that total heat gain in the library is about 165880.977 Btu/hr (48614.91 W).
6 In-Depth Study and Comparative Analysis of Modern Memory Technologies: A Comprehensive Survey
Abstract – Growing main memory capacity has fueled the development of in-memory big data management and processing. By eliminating disk I/O bottleneck, it is now possible to support interactive data analytics. However, in-memory systems are much more sensitive to other sources of overhead that do not matter in traditional I/O-bounded disk-based systems. Some issues such as fault-tolerance and consistency are also more challenging to handle in in-memory environment. We are witnessing a revolution in the design of database systems that exploits main memory as its data storage layer. Many of these researches have focused along several dimensions: modern CPU and memory hierarchy utilization, time/space efficiency, parallelism, and concurrency control. In this survey, we aim to provide a thorough review of a wide range of in-memory data management and processing proposals and systems, including both data storage systems and data processing frameworks. We also give a comprehensive presentation of important technology in memory management, and some key factors that need to be considered in order to achieve efficient in-memory data management and processing.
7 Performance and Reliability Criteria on Barcode Modulation Method in Smart Mobile Applications
Abstract – The Barcode is an optical machine-readable representation of data relating to the object to which it is attached. Barcodes is also called as Quick response codes (QR). Quick response (QR) codes are a very convenient way to display a small bit of information that is easily scanned and processed typically by mobile devices allowing physical items to almost become interactive, by providing information that is easily scanned like a website URL.The concept of 2-D barcodes is of great relevance for use in wireless data transmission between handheld electronic devices. In a typical setup, any file on a cell phone, for example, can be transferred to a second cell phone through a series of images on the LCD which are then captured and decoded through the camera of the second cell phone. In this study, a new approach for data modulation in 2 -D barcodes is introduced, and its performance is evaluated in comparison to other standard methods of barcode modulation. In this new approach, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation is used together with differential phase shift keying (DPSK) over adjacent frequency domain elements. A specific aim of this study is to establish a system that is proven tolerant to camera movements, picture blur, and light leakage within neighboring pixels of an LCD.
8 Structural and Thermal Analysis of Piston Including Piston Rings and Cylinder Liners by Using Finite Element Analysis
Saigowtham Ponnathi, P Giri Babu
Abstract – The cylinder liner and piston rings having frictional losses in the account of 20% of mechanical losses. The frictional losses can be reduced in the piston rings and cylinder liners, it causes higher efficiency and lower fuel consumption. The piston, piston rings and cylinder liners can also work at the higher temperatures and higher pressures and it reduces the frictional losses. In this project the design of piston, piston rings and cylinder liners are modelled in CATIA V5. The design of the engine parts is complex and efficiency is related to the type of material. The material is taken as ALUMINIUM-FLYASH-ALUMINA composite. Here the analysis is made in the ANSYS software where structural and thermal analysis of the piston can be determined.
9 Systematic Investigation on Enterprise Application Integration Platform
Suresh C
Abstract – Nowadays Information Technology (IT) has become very critical for successful functioning of any enterprise in this world. Every form of business thrives on some form of automation. Earlier, the automation had been custom developed, but nowadays everything seems to be through packaged applications, which in a way reduced the amount of software development significantly. Unfortunately these packaged applications, which are self-contained, have become stove-pipe applications. The requirements for next-generation software systems mandate the integration of these stove-pipes with new forms of business logic. The term Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) has become a recent entrant into the jargon of the active software industry. EAI is a buzzword that represents the task of integration of various applications so that they may share information and processes freely. Thus EAI is the creation of robust and elegant business solutions by combining applications using common middleware and other viable technologies. With these realizations, EAI was created by industry analysts to help information technology organizations to understand the emergence of a type of software that eases the pains of integration. EAI is the nexus of technology, method, philosophy and desire to finally address years of architectural neglect.
10 Enhancement in Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids
Akanksha Mishra, Saigeeta Priyadarshini
Abstract – Nanofluid technology is becoming an innovative challenge for heat transfer fluids due to considerable enhancement in thermal conductivity of nanofluids at lower nanopartical volume fraction. Nanofluid is a two phase mixture which is made up of suspension of nano-size particles into base fluid (water, ethylene glycol, engine oil), in order to enhance the heat transfer property of base fluids. Choi reported the enhancement in thermal conductivity of base fluid by dispersion of metallic or non metallic nano-size particles. After Choi many researchers have reported their theoretical, experimental and numerical, results on the thermo-physical properties of nanofluids. In the literature several researchers reported that there are various operating parameters which affect the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. In the present paper the results of several researches in the field of enhancement of nanofluid thermal conductivity have been compiled.
11 Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm
R.S.Shudapreyaa, Dr.S.Anandamurugan
Abstract – A Novel Energy-Efficient Min-Max Optimization (NEMO) is proposed to improve the data delivery performance in WSN. The NEMO scheme is used in the virtual grid (after partitioning the sensor field into uniform sized cells based on the number of nodes present in the sensor field) environment to periodically collect the data from the mobile sink through the cell headers. Here the movement of sink is based on controlled fashion (sink moves around the boundary of the sensor field environment) and collects the data from the border line cell headers. For efficient data delivery Fruit Fly Optimization (FFO) algorithm is applied here to find the best path by using the fitness value (smell concentration) calculated between the nodes based on the distance. Optimal path is chosen by first calculating the minimum hop count paths and then find the maximum of total fitness value along those paths. In that way best path is selected by considering the shortest path (since the fitness value is based on the distance) which improves the data delivery performance and also it minimizes the energy consumption. The proposed scheme enables the sensor nodes to maintain the optimal path towards the latest location of mobile sink by using the FFO algorithm which leads to maximize the network lifetime in wireless sensor networks.
12 Design and Development of Thermal Rapid Prototyping Machine and Its Application
Vineet Kumar, Lalit kumar, Rajesh.m, Abid Haleem
Abstract – Rapid prototyping technology is an additive manufacturing technique and green technology which transform digital design model into three dimensional physical solid model without using jig and fixtures. In this paper a single jet thermal energy based rapid prototyping machine is design and developed. In this paper machine assembly, process steps and its application and limitations are discussed.
13 Design and Implementation of Crossbar Based Router
Abstract – The heart of an on-chip network is the router, which undertakes crucial task of coordinating the data flow. A high speed on_chip router is designed and implemented in this paper. High speed is achieved by allowing routing function for each input port and high level of parallelism is achieved by using distributed arbiters. The designing has been done using the hardware description language VHDL in XILINX ISE tool. Its FPGA implementation is tested using Virtex-5 board.
14 Security Enhancement in Audio Steganography by Encryption Algorithm
Anil R. Deshpande , N.N. Kant
Abstract – Steganography is considered as method to protect the digital information. Present work explore steganography for audio signals ensures secure data transfer between the source and destination in terms of audio file of different formats and the application of encryption algorithm is use at the first level of security, which is very complex to break. In the second level it uses algorithm to encode the message into audio signals. It also uses the encryption key for encoding and decoding the hidden data. The idea is to provide a good and efficient method for hiding the data from hackers and send it to the destination in a safer manner through audio signals. Though it is well modulated program, it has been limited to certain restrictions. The quality of sound depends on the size of the audio which the user selects and length of the message.
15 Dynamic Approach for Confidentiality Protection in Web Search
Bonam Sirisha, N Krishnaiah
Abstract – Web search engines (WSEs) collect and store information about their users in order to tailor their services better to their users’ needs. Nevertheless, while receiving a personalized attention, users lose control over their own data. Search logs can disclose sensitive information and the real identities of users, thus creating serious risks of privacy breaches. Privacy preserving techniques seek to limit these risks by modifying the data. Although privacy is preserved, the data utility is reduced in a consequence of the data modifications. Achieving a good trade-off between privacy and utility can be a difficult task. In the present thesis we discuss the problem of limiting privacy disclosure risks in search logs while preserving enough data utility. The first part of this thesis focuses on the methods to prevent the gathering of information by WSEs. Since search logs are convenient in order to receive an accurate service, the aim is to provide logs that are still suitable to provide personalization. To that end, we propose a protocol which uses a social network in order to hide the queries submitted by a user. Results shows that users achieve good levels of privacy, meanwhile the response time of the protocol is acceptable.
16 Role of Information Technology tool (ICT-tool) in Library Advancement
P.R. Kolhe, M.H .Tharkar , R.M.Dharaskar ,S.D.Desai,S. Joshi
Abstract – The paper throws light on the advancement of libraries. Library play vital role in progress of any country. Progress of country depends upon advance knowledge gained by each and every person of the country. The availability of information resources in media is very specific concept and to identify the best practices that can be done through specific information and comparative methods so it will be helpful for all types of users. Thus to effectively meet the demands of end users, the libraries need to identify and adopt good and advance techniques.
17 Development of Fast Dissolving Films of Sertraline Hydrochloride
Santosh V Indraksha, Suresh M Rajurkar, Sulabha S. Lalsare, Simta S. Jadhav, P RKolhe
Abstract – Sertraline hydrochloride is widely used antidepressant drug but it is very bitter and poses challenge of being administered to depressed person. Generally, a pill design is for swallowing intact or chewing to deliver a precise dosage of medication to patients. However, some patients, particularly pediatric and geriatric patients, have difficulty swallowing or chewing solid dosage forms. In order to assist these patients, fast dissolving films were developed. The films can be consumed without water, thus enabling administration easier in pediatric geriatric and dysphagic patient formulation. The dosage form allows discrete consumption of the dose, and smaller the size of the dosage form allows for shorter residence time within the oral cavity and potentially more effective avoidance of unpleasant taste. To avoid the bitter unpleasant taste sertraline hydrochloride –Beta cyclodextrin complex granules were utilized.
18 Platform Categorization with Runtime Ideals besides Its Presentation to Software Thieving Finding
Suresh C, Muthukumar S , Appandairaj C
Abstract – Identifying similar or identical code fragments becomes much more challenging in code theft cases where plagiarizers can use various automated code transformation or obfuscation techniques to hide stolen code from being detected. Source code plagiarism has become a serious problem for the industry. Although there exist many software solutions for comparing source codes, they are often not practical. This paper presents a novel dynamic analysis approach to software plagiarism detection. Previous works in this field are largely limited in that (i) most of them cannot handle advanced obfuscation techniques, and (ii) the methods based on source code analysis are not practical since the source code of suspicious programs typically cannot be obtained until strong evidences have been collected. Based on the observation that some critical runtime values of a program are hard to be replaced or eliminated by semantics-preserving transformation techniques, we introduce a novel approach to dynamic characterization of executable programs. Our value-based plagiarism detection method (VaPD) uses the longest common subsequence based similarity measuring algorithms to check whether two code fragments belong to the same lineage. We evaluate our proposed method through a set of real-world automated obfuscators.
19 Low Power BS-LFSR Using Single Scan Chain
S.Nandhini, P.Premkumar, P.Kokila, T.G.Dhaarani
Abstract – Power consumption has become a crucial concern in Built In Self Test (BIST) due to the switching activity in the circuit under test(CUT). In this paper we present a novel method which aims at minimizing the total power consumption during testing. This paper presents a low-transition linear feedback shift register (LFSR) that is based on some new observations about the output sequence of a conventional LFSR ,called BS-LFSR. When used to generate test patterns for scan-based built-in self-tests, it reduces the number of transitions that occur at the scan-chain input during scan shift operation by 50% when compared to those patterns produced by a conventional LFSR. Hence, it reduces the overall switching activity in the circuit under test during test applications when compared with existing methods. The BS-LFSR is combined with a scan-chain-ordering algorithm that orders the cells in a way that reduces the average and peak power (scan and capture) in the test cycle or while scanning out a response to a signature analyzer. Experimental results on ISCAS’89 benchmark circuits show up to 65% and 55% reductions in average and peak power, respectively.
20 Studies on Dynamic Power Management and Routing Techniques in Wireless Sensor Network
R Augustian Isaac, Dr.S. Lakshmi
Abstract – Recent developments in Micro–Electro-Mechanical Systems technology lined up a way for low power wireless applications. Sensor networks are highly resource constrained network where networking of sensors enhances the collection of information where human interventions are difficult. The major research challenges in the fields of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are to maintain the battery of sensor node thereby increasing the life time of the network. There are many schemes through which the battery life could be increased. One such technique is increasing the lifetime using routing. Hence the paper focuses a detailed survey study on various routing protocols of WSN.

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