Welcome to International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Engineering Research (IJETER)

Volume 4, Issue 3, March (2016)

S.No Title & Authors Full Text
1 High Dimensional Data Using Fuzzy C – Means Clustering For Sensitive Distance Metric
G.Shanthini, P.Ponsekar, S.Vidhya
Abstract – The major objective of clustering is to discover collection of comparable objects based on similarity metric. On the other hand, a similarity metric is generally specified by the user according to the requirements for obtaining better results.There are several approaches available for clustering objects. In the proposed approach an effective fuzzy clustering technique is used. Fuzzy Possibilistic C-Means (FPCM) is the effective clustering algorithm available to cluster unlabeled data that produces both membership and typicality values during clustering process. In this approach, the efficiency of the Fuzzy Possibilistic C-means clustering approach is enhanced by using the penalized and compensated constraints. Penalized and Compensated terms are embedded with the Modified fuzzy positivistic clustering method’s objective function to construct the Penalized based FPCM (PFPCM). In order to improve the clustering accuracy, third proposed approach uses the Improved Penalized Fuzzy C-Means (IPFCM). The penalty term takes the spatial dependence of the objects into consideration, which is inspired by theNeighborhood Expectation Maximization (NEM) algorithm and is modified according to the criterion of FCM. In this approach, penalized constraint is improved by using NEM algorithm and it is combined with compensated constraints. The proposed Improved Penalized for Fuzzy C-Means (IPFCM) clustering algorithm, uses improved penalized constraints which will help in better calculation of distance between the clusters and increasing the accuracy of clustering.
2 Fundamental Group of the Torus and the Dunce Cap
Dr. Parvinder Singh
Abstract – In topology, the dunce cap is a compact topological space formed by taking a solid triangle and gluing all three sides together, with the orientation of one side reversed. Simply gluing two sides oriented in the same direction would yield a cone much like the layman's dunce cap, but the gluing of the third side results in identifying the base of the cap with a line joining the base to the point. For the fundamental group, use the fact that we can find a homotopy between X and the wedge of S2 and S1 (by moving the points where the chord joins S2 so they coincide). The fundamental group of the wedge S2 and S1 is the free product of π1 (S1) and π1 (S2) = 1, which is π1 (S1) = Z. In this paper we prove that the fundamental group of the n-fold dunce cap is a cyclic group of order n and the fundamental group of the torus is a free abelian group of rank 2.
3 Ternary Quadratic Equation and Harmonic Progression in Rationals
M.A.Gopalan, S.Vidhyalakshmi, N.Thiruniraiselvi
Abstract – This paper concerns with the problem of obtaining harmonic progression in rational numbers by employing the solutions of the ternary quadratic equation Z2=DX2 + Y2. Some examples are also presented.
4 An Improved Voltage Level Balancing Method for Nine Level Diode Clamped Inverter
S Narmadha, S. Venketasen
Abstract – In this project active front-end solution to balance dc-link capacitor voltage of nine-level diode-clamped inverter. Capacitor voltage balancing performed by three-level boost converter (TLBC) connected to the two inner capacitors of nine-level diode-clamped inverter and additional balancing circuits at other two outer capacitors. Proposed configuration tested through simulation and experiment for various load power factor conditions at high modulation index. The result demonstrates the reliability of proposed configuration to balance the dc-link capacitors voltage at desired level. The TLBC has advantages in high power applications to reduced switching losses and reduced reverse recovery losses of the diode. A fuzzy control system is a control system based on fuzzy logic a mathematical system that analyzes analog input values in terms of logical variables that take on continuous values between 0 and 1, in contrast to classical or digital logic, which operates on discrete values of either 1 or 0 (true or false, respectively).The more level can be produce, it does will be much better for the application. It is because the value of THD also will decrease once the levels of the multilevel inverter increase.
5 Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System with Self Turning for Permanent Magnet Synchronus Motor
R.Ushanandhini, R.Gandhi
Abstract – The PMSM (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) drive systems are often used in electrical drives because of their simple structures, ease of maintenance and efficiency. However, the nonlinear behaviour which arises mainly from motor dynamics and load characteristics and the presence of uncertainties make their control an extremely difficult task. So, the speed control strategy should be adaptive and robust for successful industrial applications. To handle the control issue more effectively, By using the self-tuning Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with modified rule base is reduce the complexity of the controller without losing system performance and stability. The best topology is modelled in MATLAB/Simulink platform and the results are analyzed.
6 Simulation for High Speed Brushless Dc Motor Operating In a Low and High Speed Range Using A Novel Drive Method
N.Nithyanantham, S.Vijayakumar
Abstract – a novel drive method, which is different from the traditional motor drive techniques, for high-speed brushless DC (BLDC) motor is proposed and verified by a series of experiments. It is well known that the BLDC motor can be driven by either pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques with a constant dc-link voltage or pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) techniques with an adjustable dc-link voltage. However, to our best knowledge, there is rare study providing a proper drive method for a high-speed BLDC motor with a large power over a wide speed range. Therefore, the detailed theoretical analysis comparison of the PWM control and the PAM control for high-speed BLDC motor is first given. Then, a conclusion that the PAM control is superior to the PWM control at high speed is obtained because of decreasing the commutation delay and high-frequency harmonic wave. Meanwhile, a new high-speed BLDC motor drive method based on the hybrid approach combining PWM and PAM is proposed. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the performance analysis Comparison and the new drive method are verified by several experiments.
7 Model Predictive Control of Matrixconverter Fed Induction Generator for Wind Turbine
K.Naveen Babu, K.Padmanaba
Abstract – The conventional direct torque control scheme for induction motor drives is extended to directly control the active power delivered to the grid by a wind turbine driven induction generator. The generator is interfaced to the grid through an AC-AC matrix converter. A constant switching frequency based direct power control scheme with flux and power controllers is proposed. The space vector modulation method is used to synthesize the pulse width modulated output voltages from the matrix converter and to control the power factor of the currents on the grid side. The Model predictive controller is used for controlling the active and reactive power generated from the generator. Simulation for the same is carried out with MATLAB Simulink and the results are analyzed.
8 A Modified Apod Pulse Width Modulation Technique of Multilevel Cascaded Inverter Design
K.Sangeetha, P.T.Supriya
Abstract – This paper proposes a Alternate Phase Opposition Disposition (APOD) strategy to achieve balanced line-to-line output voltages and to reduce the harmonic distortions by maximize the modulation index in the linear modulation range where the output voltage can be linearly adjusted in the multilevel cascaded inverter (MLCI) operating under unbalanced dc-link conditions. In these conditions, the linear modulation range is reduced, and a significant output voltage imbalance may occur as voltage references increase. Compared to the conventional multilevel inverter, the number of dc voltage sources, switches, installation area and converter cost is significantly reduced as the number of voltage steps increases. From this analysis, the theory behind the output voltage imbalance is explained, and the maximum linear modulation range considering an unbalanced dc-link condition is evaluated. After that, a Alternate Phase Opposition Disposition strategy is proposed to achieve output voltage balancing as well as to extend the linear modulation range up to the maximum reachable point in theory.Both the simulations and the experiments for a thirteen-level phase-shifted modulated MLCI for electric vehicle traction motor drive show that the proposed method is able to balance line-to-line output voltages as well as to maximize the linear modulation range under the unbalanced dc-link conditions.
9 Power Loss Analysis of Single Switch Isolated Dc- Dc Converter Using ZVS and ZCS Techniques
M.Meenakhi, R.Gandhi, R.Siva Kumar
Abstract – This paper focuses on power loss analysis of single switch isolated DC-DC boost converter using quasi resonant ZVS (zero voltage switching) and ZCS(zero current switching). Low rated lossless snubber with low magnetizing current, 100kHz, 250W prototype converter are provided to validate the proposed concept. This design has high efficiency and low switching loss. The design and performance are verified through simulation using MATLAB environment.
10 Maximum Power Point Tracking Based Efficient Multi-Stage Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System
R.Priyanga, S.Vijayakumar
Abstract – This project introduces a new converter called reconfigurable solar converter (RSC) for photovoltaic (PV)-battery application, particularly utility-scale PV-battery application. The main concept of the new converter is to use a single-stage three phase grid-tie solar PV converter to perform dc/ac and dc/dc operations. This converter solution is appealing for PV-battery application, because it minimizes the number of conversion stages, thereby improving efficiency and reducing cost, weight, and volume. In this paper, a combination of analysis and experimental tests is used to demonstrate the attractive performance characteristics of the proposed RSC. The proposed micro-inverter has a quadratic boost converter in the DC-DC stage and multistage universal-bridge inverter in the DC-AC stage. The boost operates in continuous conduction mode (CCM) along its overall operational range, while the full bridge inverter uses bipolar commutation. The quadratic boost is controlled to regulate a DC voltage bus with a level higher than the peak voltage of the utility in order to guarantee the adequate direction on the power flow. Meanwhile, the full-bridge inverter shapes the output current using the grid voltage waveform as reference and defining the amplitude with a control signal given by the MPPT.
11 Increasing Lifetime of Sensor Nodes using Load Balancing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks
Ragavi V, Dr.T.Abirami
Abstract – A wireless sensor network is a spatially distributed autonomous device using sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. Energy consumption is the core issue in wireless sensor networks. To generate a node energy model that can accurately disclose the energy consumption of sensor nodes is an extremely important part of protocol development, system design and performance evaluation in wireless sensor network. To solve these issues, load balancing mechanism is used in the directed diffusion protocol. In fact, load balancing is a reliable and a powerful mechanism. In this system, one dispatcher (zone header) assigns incoming tasks (request of clients) to one of the homogeneous servers of the system by using a load balancing mechanism and to route the data to the sink when the path is reinforced. The proposed method improves the performance of network lifetime and can balance the energy load of the sensors.
12 Trust Management in Distributed Cloud Environment
V.JaganRaja, P.Sathish Kumar, Dr.V.Venkatachalam
Abstract – Cloud is nascent and rapidly evolving model, with new aspects and capabilities being announced regularly. It is better to prevent security threats before they enter into the systems and there is no way how this can be prevented without knowing where they come from. Many existing trust mechanisms played a vital role and done their best in giving trust but even though still best is needed. So we done our best in this survey paper to examine risks, trust, trends and solutions to consider when using cloud computing in a mathematical way using Policy Based trust and some encryption techniques.
13 Critical issues in Cloud Computing services & its Solutions
Satinder Kaur, Simmi Bagga, Hardeep Singh
Abstract – Cloud computing deals with the branch of distributed data processing in which computer resources and capacities are provided to the user as an Internet service on payment basis. There are various problematic issues of cloud computing which needs special intentions for proper solutions so that cloud services can be used securely and safely. As these are many faults yet to be fully solved so, it becomes a new challenging area for the researchers. This paper introduces the services architecture of cloud and its supporting modules, critical issues in cloud computing with their solutions which can be implemented yet.
14 Studies on Impact Toughness of Austempered Ductile Iron
Rakesh Raghavendra.D, Dr.Sethuram
Abstract – The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of austempering temperature and soaking periods on the impact strength of ductile iron samples poured in permanent moulds. ADI is an exciting alloy of iron which offers the design engineers the best combination of high strength-to weight ratio, low cost design flexibility, good toughness, along with fatigue strength. A part of the samples were annealed and the whole lot is then austempered at different temperatures and the above mentioned properties of these samples were investigated. The samples of ductile iron were austempered by single step Austempering process at temperatures 3000C, 3500C, 4000C and 4500C for 30, 60 and 120 minutes. Then respective tests were carried out and thus above mentioned properties were found out. From the results obtained we were able to conclude that the hardness of the material was maximum when austempered at 3000C for a time period of 120 Minutes The surface hardness of the material reduced with increase in Austempering Temperature. The surface hardness of the material increased with increase in Austempering duration. The Microstructure of the samples was studied for different austempering temperatures and soaking times durations , showed graphite nodules of size varying from 6 to 7 with distribution of nodules/mm' varying from 75 to 250 depending on the Austempering Temperature and time duration.
15 Emergency Message Dissemination by Clustered Broadcasting Using Selective Reliable Broadcast in Vanets
B.Vidhya, M.Ramalingam
Abstract – Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a subset of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). VANET is a self-organized information system composed of vehicles (and possibly additional infrastructure) capable of short-range communication through the device called On Board Unit (OBU). There is a wide range of possible application areas of VANETs, including warning systems, collision avoidance/notification, autonomous vehicles, and traffic optimization. VANETs rely heavily on broadcast transmission. When a vehicle rebroadcasts a message, it is highly likely that the neighboring vehicles have already received it, and these results in a large number of redundant messages. This affects inter-vehicle communications, since redundant rebroadcasts, contention and collisions can be largely increased as the number of vehicles increases. Broadcasting packets may lead to frequent contention and collisions in transmission among neighboring vehicles this problem is referred as the broadcast storm problem. The main goal of Selective Reliable Broadcast protocol (SRB), is intended to limit the number of packet transmissions. Through an opportunistic vehicle selection, packets are retransmitted towards a next hop, in order to strongly reduce the number of forwarder vehicles, while preserving an acceptable level of QoS. SRB belongs to the class of broadcast protocols, as well as cluster-based approaches. It exploits the partitioning behavior, as typical from vehicular ad hoc networks, in order to automatically detect vehicular clusters, intended as “zones of interest”. Packets will be then forwarded only to selected vehicles, opportunistically elected as cluster-heads. SRB performances have been assessed in different vehicular scenarios, mostly realistic environments, such as highway scenarios.
16 Study on Time Space Management in Work Zone from Jagir Ammapalayam to Seelanaickenpatti in NH7
Venkatesh.G, S.Sakthivel
Abstract – The purpose of this investigation is to find out the various problems involved in the highways due to the setting up of the work zones at the various points in the particular section of the road. Time space management is the major concern in road construction projects and established guidelines exist for some countries. The large number of new major road infrastructure projects requires the enhancement of highways for the safe operation and maintenance of the traffic. Constructability is an important aspect, which becomes more pressing in light of public-private partnership (PPP) nature of these projects. We can and must build faster, bigger, safer and more economically than our predecessors and to meet this challenge, effective project management is crucial. The major problem faced in the construction of roads is the diversion of the traffic and safe work zones for the workers. The management of these zones is highly under the low priority list of all contractors or the firms which carry out the works. The improvement of the roads should be carried out with proper detailing and scheduling. Proper study of the traffic pattern of the particular section is to carried out. With the details derived and using suitable Statistical Packages Social Sciences(SPSS) for the time space management of the work scheduling is to be done. A study on the NH7 stretch between Jagir Ammapalayam and Seelanaickenpatti is to be carried out and subsequently a Statistical Package Social Science(SPSS) is developed on time space management system.
17 Calculation of Performance Evaluation, Reliability, Throughput using Co-operative Medium Access Control Protocol in Wireless Networks
Abstract – We specify and evaluate a protocol for cooperative relay communications in wireless networks targeted for low-budget and energy-constrained off-the-shelf hardware. The protocol located at the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer integrates radio resource reservation, relay selection, and packet flow. Performance is evaluated with different parameters, such as node density, channel coherence time, and data packet size. Higher network-wide reliability and throughput compared to non-cooperative protocols can be achieved in dense networks and unreliable channels. At the same time, throughput does not degrade in sparse networks or good channel conditions.
18 Comparative Study of Distributed Algorithm and Scalable Distributed Algorithm
Abstract – Scheduling and spectrum allocation are tasks affecting the performance of cognitive radio wireless networks, where heterogeneity in channel availability limits the performance and poses a great challenge on protocol design. In this paper, we present a distributed algorithm for scheduling and spectrum allocation with the objective of maximizing the network’s throughout subject to a delay constraint. During each time slot, the scheduling and spectrum allocation problems involve selecting a subset of links to be activated, and based on spectrum sensing outcomes, allocate the available resources to these links. This problem is addressed as an aggregate utility maximization problem. Since the throughput of any data flow is limited by the throughput of the weakest link along its end-to-end path, the utility of each flow is chosen as a function of this weakest link’s throughput. The throughput and delay performance of the network are characterized using a queueing theoretic analysis, and throughput is maximized via the application of Lagrangian duality theory. The dual decomposition framework decouples the problem into a set of subproblems that can be solved locally, hence, it allows us to develop a scalable distributed algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate the fast convergence rates of the proposed algorithm, as well as significant performance gains compared to conventional design methods.
19 Analyzing and Categorizing Virtual Private Networks to Overcome Security Issues
Suresh C
Abstract – The term VPN has been associated in the past with such remote connectivity services as the (PSTN), Public Switched Telephone Network but VPN networks have finally started to be linked with IP-based data networking. Before IP based networking corporations had expended considerable amounts of time and resources, to set up complex private networks, now commonly called Intranets. These networks were installed using costly leased line services, Frame Relay, and ATM to incorporate remote users. For the smaller sites and mobile workers on the remote end, companies supplemented their networks with remote access servers or ISDN. Today’s VPN solutions overcome the security factor using special tunneling protocols and complex encryption procedures, data integrity and privacy is achieved, and the new connection produces what seems to be a dedicated point-to point connection. And, because these operations occur over a public network, VPNs can cost significantly less to implement than privately owned or leased services. Although early VPNs required extensive expertise to implement, technology has matured to a level where deployment can be a simple and affordable solution for businesses of all sizes.
20 Security of Data Based on Color and Armstrong Number
Puja Maruti Lad, Yallawa Shivaji Vhankade, Ashwini Jagannath Khandagale, Prajakta Ram Bhalerao
Abstract – Today, the main issue is the information security. By the information security, Confidentiality, respectability, non-disavowal, verification, for the most part involves. Cryptography is the widespread procedure for contribute certainty of transmitted information. To give security and encryption of the information by utilizing a color as the password and key including whole numbers that I have executed a novel methodology. With the assistance of three arrangement of keys secure information transmission are given as essential security component acted by the color consequently giving confirmation.
21 Ontology Based Automatic Generation of Domain Module from Electronics Books
Dr.M.Newlin Rajkumar, K.R.Seena, S.Mohan Kumar, V.Dhurka
Abstract – Information and Communication Technologies we are developing on academic colleges, it was growing need for effective creation and management systems. TSLMs required to the technology of the member systems, here an appropriate domain module is commonly generated for the all users. The domain module is described as the pedagogical representation of the domain name is to pass the pdf format to convert the general format, to be learnt and is considered as key of any TSLMs as it presents the information systems.
22 Data Deduplication in Client Side Using Hash Technique
P. Nirmala, S. Murugan@Prakasam, M. Janaki Raman, R. S. Arun Murugan, C. B. Lallit Kumar
Abstract – Data deduplication is one of the techniques which used to solve the repetition of data.The deduplication techniques are usually used in the cloud server for reducing the space of the cloud storage.To prevent the unauthorized use of data accessing and create duplicate data on cloud the encryption technique to encrypt the data before stored on cloud server.It consists two types of deduplications methods are available one is file name based and another one is file content based in the first method, we are not possible to process because same filename having different content and second method takes more time for content based search. To overcome the problem we are going to implement side data deduplication system, before upload the file to server. We first stores the file hash code in client side, Before uploading file the client machine it convert the file to hash code and checks temporary client chunks, if the hash code is same the file will not process to main server else if the hash code is different the files will upload to server.We make the initial attempt to officially address the problem of authorized data deduplication method. Different from traditional deduplication systems,in additional we are using the secret sharing scheme and shows that it incurs small encoding and decoding overhead compared to the network transmission overhead in the regular upload/download operations.
23 Improving Performance of Map Reduce in Heterogeneous Environments
K.Suganthi, S.Madhavi
Abstract – Map Reduce is a programming model and an associated implementation for processing and generating large data sets with a parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster. Hadoop is an open-source implementation of Map Reduce enjoying wide adoption and is often used for short jobs where low response time is critical. Hadoop’s performance is closely tied to its task scheduler implicitly assumes that cluster nodes are homogeneous and tasks make progress linearly, and uses these assumptions to decide when to speculatively re-execute tasks that appear to be stragglers. In practice, the homogeneity assumptions do not always hold. Specifically this occurs in a virtualized data center, such as Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).but that the Hadoop’s scheduler can cause severe performance degradation in heterogeneous environments. To address this problem, a new scheduling algorithm Longest Approximate Time to End (LATE) that is highly robust to heterogeneity and it leads to improvement in response time.
24 Prototype Based K - Means Clustering Technique Using Matlab Application
J.Ramyabharathi, N.Vijayalakshmi, S.Omprakash
Abstract – Data mining is a field at the intersection of computer science and statistics, is the process that involves, introducing patterns in large data sets. It utilizes methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The overall goal of the data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure. In data mining K-means clustering algorithm is one of the efficient unsupervised learning algorithms to solve the well-known clustering problems. This method works for both the cases i.e. for known number of clusters in advance as well as unknown number of clusters. The user has the flexibility either to fix the number of clusters or input the minimum number of clusters required. But in this also it takes more computational time than the K-means for larger data sets. To overcome this problem we enhancing new K-means algorithm called Prototype based K-Means that can automatically find the cluster center with less number of time. A new method is proposed for finding the better initial centroids and to provide an efficient way of assigning the data points to suitable clusters with reduced time complexity. The proposed algorithm has the more accuracy with less computational time comparatively original k-means clustering algorithm.
25 Using Advanced RFID for Tollplaza Collection without Manpower
S. Vasantha Kumar, N. Prakash, R. Ranjitha, S.P. Santhoshkumar
Abstract – Nowadays, streams of traffic are increased and toll gate on highways are congested. It will cause the traffic jam and waste time. So in this project we are proposing an Automated Toll System is used for toll collection without making traffic congestion and waiting in long queue with help of RFID technique without manpower. Also, by using this system, it will save time, i.e. by avoiding long queue as no need to stop the vehicle and no need of manual transaction. Most important that, the stolen vehicle will be able to catch easily with help of RFID technique and nail assembly. There are three portions in toll collection system. They are RFID system, balance deduction system and toll gate control system. In this paper, we are using advanced RFID for toll plaza gate open and close. The toll plaza gate design also changed for RFID characteristics.
26 Automatic Detection of Road Traffic Signs Bassed On Text Extraction
S.P.Audline Beena, A.Mathan Gopi, T.V.Aarthy, B.Indhu, B.Pavithra
Abstract – Detection and recognition of traffic signs is an essential task of regulating the traffic, guiding and warning driver’s pedestrians. In traffic sign detection research are categorized into three groups. The first group of researchers believes that traffic sign detection colors are important information by which traffic signs can be detected and classified. The second group believes that detection of traffic signs can be achieved by traffic sign shape only, and the third believes that color together with shape make the backbone for any road sign detection. Although traffic signs are apparent and have several obvious characteristics, some conditions may prevent driver perceiving them. For instance, at night or in bad lighting conditions drivers are less likely to notice the traffic signs. Some distracting events on road may result in a skip of signs. Moreover, sometimes only the driver himself is not able to notice the signs due to lack of concentration. Driving needs continuous processing of visual information from the road. To avoid accident, driver needs to monitor a lot of traffic signs. For this purpose traffic signs play an important role to provide information about traffic and road conditions which is necessary for a driver to ac accomplish a collision free driving environment.
27 Patient Self-Controllable Healthcare Monitoring System Using Android Smart Phone
G.Sandrakarunya, P.Mariselvi, M.Krishnapriya
Abstract – Presents a prototype machine-to machine (M2M) healthcare solution that combines mobile and IPv6 techniques in a wireless sensor network to monitor the health condition of patients and provide a wide range of effective, comprehensive, and convenient healthcare services. A low-power embedded wearable sensor measures the health parameters dynamically, and is connected, according to the concept of IPv6 over low-power wireless personal area network, to the M2M node for wireless transmission through the internet or external IP-enabled networks via the M2M gateway. A visualization module of the server program graphically displays the recorded biomedical signals on Android mobile devices used by patients and doctors at the end of the networks in real-time. Our approach for a global M2M healthcare solution is managed to process the large amount of biomedical signals through the extended network combining IPv6 technique and mobile technology for daily lifestyle to users appropriately.
28 Dielectric Theory and Its Properties
Sukhdeep Kaur, Manjit Sandhu, Jaipreet Kaur
Abstract – Dielectric materials are insulators used for their exceptional dielectric properties. An important property of a dielectric is its ability to support an electrostatic field while dissipating minimal energy in the form of heat. The lower the dielectric loss (the proportion of energy lost as heat), the more effective is a dielectric material. Another consideration is the dielectric constant, the extent to which a substance concentrates the electrostatic lines of flux. Substances with a low dielectric constant include a perfect vacuum, dry air, and most pure, dry gases such as helium and nitrogen. Materials with moderate dielectric constants include ceramics, distilled water, paper, mica, polyethylene, and glass. Metal oxides, in general, have high dielectric constants. This paper discusses the various dielectric properties such as capacitance, permittivity, dielectric constant, loss tangent, and resistivity. Various losses such as insertion loss, return loss and power absorption are also discussed.
29 Localization of IP Spoofer Inception using PathBack Scatter Suspension Set
Roopa M, Prema C
Abstract – In order to hide the real location of enemy the enemy may use someone else’s IP address or unused IP address, these enemies are called as spoofers. To find the origin of them many mechanisms came, due to many reasons these solutions were not successful. Since they are using someone’s identity the enemies are safe. In order to find the identity of the Spoofers we are proposing a novel solution called as Path Back Scatter (PBS). PBS inspects ICMP error messages generated by bluffing circulation and trajectories the spoofer constructed on public accessible data. And also we propose the result which avoids the deployment complications to catch the spoofer which is cost effective. In this paper we determine the method and effectiveness of PBS and by applying PBS we display the real locality of the spoofer and discarding the respective node from the network.
30 Delegate and Verify Pool Based Policy IBE Using Composite Cryptosystem
Sujatha T, Poornima U.S
Abstract – Cloud offers the populace, an opportunity to share data, resources and services. Among many issues, security is the most challenging issue and research has been going on to make more strengthen. Encryption is one of the methods to secure data at any level in cloud. This paper presents such a technique to achieve stored data confidentiality and access control using policy based encryption. During the delegation, cloud server may cheat the authorized users or may tamper the data stored or may replace the data for cost saving. So, proposed Hybrid VPABE schema achieves data confidentially and fine grain access control.

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