IJETER | International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Engineering Research (IJETER)

Welcome to International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Engineering Research (IJETER)


Volume 4, Issue 8, August (2016)

S.No Title & Authors Full Text
1 Study of Digital Modulation Technique on Wireless Communication
M. Meena, Dr.V.Rajendran
Abstract – Wireless communication is the biggest contribution to the mankind. In wireless application interference and crosstalk exists. To analysis the reduce in BER (bit error rate) implementing in different digital modulation technique OFDM. OFDM is a technique that helps to increase the data rate. Modulation techniques are the building blocks of physical interference of all communication technique. By the M-ARY PSK includes BPSK, QPSK, 8 -bit PSK, 16- BIT and 32-bit PSK using LABVIEW using channels on AWGN channels.
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2 Wound Image Analysis System for Patients with Diabetes using two Level Segmentation
P.Asana Mustoora, A.Rameez Fathima, S.Udaya Easwari, Dr.S.Ebenezer Juliet
Abstract – Foot ulcer for diabetic patients is a major problem. In today’s healthcare systems Medical image processing plays an important role. The results of Medical Imaging procedures can be used for surgical planning and simulation, radiotherapy planning and to find the healing status of the disease. Visual assessment of diabetic wound images by physicians suffer with time consumption and also do not produce objective measurements and quantifiable parameters of the healing status. But the above mentioned problems can be solved by doing the medical image analyzes automatically using computer by applying various image segmentation methods. In this paper, Wound Image Analysis System partitions the wound image into meaningful segments using image segmentation technique in order to analyze the wound status. The aim is to accurately segment the wound region and to perform color analysis to find the healing status of wound. The image is captured and then the wound healing status is determined by applying Adaptive Mean Shift Image Segmentation followed by wound boundary determination. Experimental results show that the proposed Wound Image Analysis System minimize the frequency of health centre visit by the diabetic patients and also help to find the healing status of wound by referring the history of recently stored wound images.
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3 Aerodynamic Optimization of Car Shape using CFD
Komal Rawat, Hina Akhtar, Jaya Verma, Ravi Kumar, Vinod Kumar
Abstract – In this project, three different models of car were developed in solid works and applied the boundary conditions in ANSYS workbench 14. The research presents a discussion on the results obtained from numerical simulation of airflow over a passenger car without a rear spoiler and compares these with results obtained for a passenger car fitted with a rear spoiler. The influence of rear spoiler on the generated lift, drag, and pressure distributions are investigated and reported. The approach followed is “model-mesh-analyze” using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) being the chosen solver procedure. In conclusion, the study reveals that rear spoilers have considerable effect on Lift, i.e. vehicle stability and moderate effect on Drag i.e. Fuel consumption.
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4 A Study on Designing of a HVAC system in Green Building Environment
Jen Jacob
Abstract – This paper illustrates the study on designing of a HVAC system and converses the role of HVAC for make certain of elevated performance of sustainable buildings in design and process. The design plans for effectual and green HVAC systems are explained and the novel emerging HVAC technologies for green buildings are depicted. It is anticipated that HVAC designers and other building professionals could expand an enhanced perceptive of green buildings and apply efficient approaches and techniques for meeting the objective.
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5 Comparative Analysis of Compressive Strength and Stress-Strain Behaviour of Sifcon with Ferrocement
V. Prathima, Dr. T. Suresh Babu
Abstract – Concrete is a composite material composed mainly of water, aggregate, and cement. The desired physical properties of the finished material can be achieved by including additives and reinforcements in the mixture. Generally, fibres used in concrete are to control cracks, shrinkage and to reduce permeability. Fibres also shows excellent resistance towards impact and abrasion. SIFCON (slurry infiltrated fibre reinforced concrete) is one of the recently developed construction material. It is a special type of fibre reinforced concrete with high fibre content. It is a unique construction material possessing high strength, as well as large ductility and it contains excellent potential for structural applications when accidental or abnormal loads are encountered. “Ferro cement is a type of thin wall reinforced concrete, commonly constructed of hydraulic cement mortar, reinforced with closely spaced layers of continuous and relatively small size wire mesh. The mesh may be made of metallic or other suitable materials” In this project, we are using steel fibres of aspect ratio 50, steel mesh of diameter 0.62mm with spacing of 5mm. 1:1 mix was taken to cast the cylinders (30cm X 15cm). Tests were conducted on cylinders to determine compressive strengths & stress–strain behaviour. Fibres of 5%,10% & 15% were added in both parallel and random orientation. Steel mesh of 5%,10% & 15% were added in parallel manner and results are compared among those and as well as with conventional cement mortar.
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6 Cloud Computing: Threats, Attacks and Solutions
Parveen Kumar
Abstract – This paper is aimed to present information about the most current attacks on cloud computing, as well as security measures. Due to its emergence a number of attacks can be performed over the cloud by the attackers or intruders. Cloud computing provide a powerful computing platform that enables individuals and organizations to perform variety levels of tasks such as: use of online storage space, adoption of business applications, development of customized computer software, and creation of a “realistic” network environment. In this paper different types of attacks on cloud computing and their respective solutions are discussed. [1]Security of cloud is of great concern hence care must be taken to provide secure cloud and secure cloud services.
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7 Resource Allocation Algorithm in Distributing System Using Ant Colony Optimization-A Review
Er. Anuj Aggarwal, Dr. Rajesh Verma, Dr. Ajit Singh
Abstract – A Resource allocation system is the central component of networking system. There are many projects which are implemented in distributed system with different architectures and services. A Network Computing System is a virtual computer formed by a networked set of heterogeneous machines that agree to share their local resources with each other followed in the implementation of real resource allocation systems for large scale network computing systems known as Grids. The resource allocation system is the back bone of grid computing system. Resources in the grid system are distributed, heterogeneous, autonomous and unpredictable. Resource allocation in the grid environment depends upon the characteristics of the tasks, machines and network connectivity. In this paper, we provides a brief overview of resource allocation in grid computing considering important factors such as types of resource allocation in grid computing, resource allocation models and comparison of various scheduling algorithm in resource allocation in grid computing.
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8 The Relationship between Different Raters’ Score towards Teachers’ Appraisal: Case Study at EiTEX, Bahir Dar University
Abebaw Bizuneh
Abstract – The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between different evaluators’ ratings towards teachers’ appraisal at Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology under Bahir Dar University and to propose the solutions to the problems. The samples were one hundred senior teachers were chosen by using a purposive sampling method. Teachers’ personal files were the main instruments for the data collection. Finally the data were analyzed through correlation coefficient, and ANOVA method. The result showed that teachers’ performance evaluation by Students rating has μ1=80.109, SD1= 11.59627 which means students rating is better to identifies the effective teachers from the non-effective teachers. On the other hand teachers’ performance evaluation scores between students and directors rating, peer teachers’ and directors rating & peer teachers’ and students were 0.282** , 0.487**,0.313** respectively which means the correlation between peer teachers’ and directors rating is correlated positively and highly, similarly all the three evaluators ratings also positively correlated and consistent to each other. Finally the analysis of ANOVA test showed that all groups of Rating p=0.179>0.05, p=0.063>0.05 and p= 0.671>0.05 respectively which means there is no significance difference by the teachers rank.
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9 Common Fixed Point Theorms in 2 Non- Archimedean Menger PM-Space Using (EA) Property
C.Loganathan, S.Ranjeth Kumar
Abstract – We show some common fixed point theorems in 2 non- Archimedean Menger PM-space by using the property (E.A) and non-compatibility for a pair and quadruplet of self-mappings. A few connected results and helpful examples are also discussed.
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10 Sulphate Attack on Blended Cement Mortar – Combination Sulphates
T.Kala Deepthi, Dr. T. Suresh Babu
Abstract – As industries are increasing day by day, so its by-products also increase. We can use these by-products in construction industry to improve certain properties of cement. Blending is the addition of supplementary cementitious materials like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) to the cement. The resulted cement mortar is known as BLENDED CEMENT MORTOR. This will have improved qualities like strength, workability, durability. Ca(OH)2of hydrated cement paste reacts with sulphate ions and forms Calcium Sulphate, which further reacts with C3A to produce ettringite. This is known as SULPHATE ATTACK. Sulphate attack can be either ‘external’ or ‘internal’. External: Due to penetration of sulphates in solution, in groundwater for example, into the concrete from outside. Internal: Due to a soluble source being incorporated into the concrete at the time of mixing. Examples include the use of sulphate-rich aggregate, excess of added gypsum in the cement or contamination. Properties like strength and weight of sulphate attacked cement mortar differs from the normal conventional cement mortar. Here we make an attempt to find out these changes.
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11 Data Mining Classification Techniques: A Recent Survey
Abhale Babasaheb Annasaheb, Vijay Kumar Verma
Abstract – Prediction of heart attack is an important task in medical science. There are several factors are responsible for heart attack problem. Prediction of heart attack problem from different responsible factor is a difficult task. Data mining classification algorithm plays a vital role in several real life applications. In this research we paper present the study of various classification techniques including Decision Tree Induction, Bayesian Classification, Support Vector Machines, Rule-based classification, Neural Network Classifier and K-Nearest Neighbor Classifier. There are three important which are always considering for classifiers accuracy, Speed and Scalability.
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12 The Fog Computing Paradigm
Pankaj Sareen, Parveen Kumar
Abstract – Cloud computing is a delivery platform which promises a new way of accessing and storing personal as well as business information. It provides resources to its users through the Internet. But it also has a risk that is the involvement of a third party which makes it difficult to trust that user data is secure enough and will not be misused. To provide security, new technology called Fog computing. Fog computing, also termed edge computing, can address those problems by providing elastic resources and services to end users at the edge of network, while cloud computing are more about providing resources distributed in the core network. Fog computing extends cloud computing by providing virtualized resources and engaged location-based services to the edge of the mobile networks so as to better serve mobile traffics. Therefore, Fog computing is a lubricant of the combination of cloud computing and mobile applications.
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13 OEE Evaluation of Long Life Food Product Line
Zafar Mohammad, Gaurav Aggarwal
Abstract – Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) is a pioneer methodology to asses’ performance in industry. This study formulates and analyzes relationship between factory management & operations of cheese production line. Overall effectiveness of machine and line are computed. In addition, components of OEE i.e. on product time (OPT), rate (R) and quality (Q) are also calculated. Downtimes, mean time between failures (MTBF) & mean time to repair data (MTTR) are analyzed to identify the bottlenecks in the production system. The study shows that issues related to on product time (OPT) & quality (Q) should be resolved immediately to optimize productivity and efficiency of the lines. Study which is carried out in 21 weeks have concluded that OEE is 67%, on product time is 80%, rate is 84%, and quality is 96%. Average mean time to repair (MTTR) & Average mean time between failures (MTBF) are calculated as 16 minutes & 32 minutes respectively. This study can be utilized by other beverage and FMCG companies to analyze & improve their production system, design & operations management.
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14 Enhancing and Designing of Energy Efficient Lighting System in Existing Buildings: A Fundamental Approach
Dr. Jen Jacob
Abstract – It has become gradually more important to improve the energy efficient lighting system of building operation. Toward the end, competent daylight-responsive systems for illumination of buildings including installation of automatic lighting control systems can provide a considerable contribution. This research aims to define a new methodology for the design of lighting systems in the existing buildings. The experimental phase, focused on a specific study, is based on the evaluation between the energy consumption for the lighting control in the actual situation without control system and one designed with automation systems. A fundamental analysis of the state of the art about sustainability and voluntary protocols, modernization in field of energy saving, lighting automation systems, visual comfort, illumination and vision has been developed. Innovative design tools for lighting systems have been elaborated: specifically, the methodological approach for the energy efficiency evaluation which includes design methodology, software tool outputs evaluation methodology, data analysis method and the application for technological system choice of multiple criteria decision analysis; the development of specific model sheets to monitor and analyze visual comfort conditions.
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15 Gamification: “The System Beats Human Huge Critical Thinking”
D.Asha, P.Mayilvahanan
Abstract – The NLP(Natural language processing) is supporting Deep AQ system .The Deep AQ is a Large scale of NLP. It is respond across the structured and unstructured data. There are hundreds of analytics that will be combined with more than 50 models. That all are trained through the machine learning process. The milestone of 2011 history was the jeopardy game show .The game show was defeating the two best human players. The IBM Watson technology was used in this game. Deep AQ is depended on real word business problem gamification. Watson is a mixture of training transformation, functional and content for nongame play. This is the gamifying a business domain for Watson .The business domain gamification cannot follow the same machine learning process. That will be chance effects the machine learning for system. For example medical.Financial ,government or any other business domain. The orignial Watson game show as opposed the positive to negative to convert the ratio for example 1:100 the question and answer pairs are transformed to true or false format.The positive to nagattiveraio is very low means the ratio of 1:100 00.The big challenge of Watson machine learning pipeline are imbalance the initial extreme class in domain gamification.The combination of NLP algorithms and configuration settings the question and answer paris date sate are very challenging. We can used several data engineering technique to set the answer key, question set modification oversampling, vetting and expansion they are increase the positive lables.The Newton Raphsonis the addition algorithm engineering to used implement the logistic regress with a regular trem. It is used to imbalance of class training transformatiom.Finally we conclude by demonstranting the data and algorithm are compermentary.
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16 Curing Tests on Online Authentication Threats with the Scope of Machine Translation Application
A.Clementeena, Dr.P.Sripriya
Abstract – CAPTCHA approach makes us to clear the security issues in online authentication aspescts and thus this approach is very hard for indulging for the regular internet usage of users. The alternative approach of CAPTCHA is that mathematical functions logical functions and other problems that can only be understood by humans and they can answer correctly according to it and so I have used this CAPTCHA approach to differentiate human’s capacity and computer programs that acts as humans.
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17 2D CFD Modelling Of H –Darrieus Wind Turbine and Its Optimization for Performance Enhancement
Komal Rawat, Hina Akhtar, Anirudh Gupta, Ravi Kumar
Abstract – In the present paper 2D CFD model of H-Darrieus Wind Turbine has been developed. The model was implemented in ANSYS Fluent solver to predict wind turbines performance and optimize its geometry. As the RANS Turbulence Modeling plays a strategic role for the prediction of the flow field around wind turbines, different Turbulence Models were tested. The results demonstrate the good capabilities of the Transition SST turbulence model compared to the classical fully turbulent models. The computational domain was structured with a rotating ring mesh and the unsteady solver was used to capture the dynamic stall phenomena and unsteady rotational effects. Both grid and time step were optimized to reach independent solutions. Particularly a high quality 2D mesh was obtained using the ANSYS Meshing tool while a Sliding Mesh Model was used to simulate rotation. .Coefficient of lift and drag were calculated at different values of attack. Main parameter that is monitored in this study is the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) . Thus, an optimum value of TSR is obtained at which the turbine gives maximum power.
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18 Modulated Intensity Gradient and Texture Gradient Based Image Segmentation
Monika Patel, Megha Soni
Abstract – Image segmentation is currently a prominent topic for both military and commercial researchers. This paper concentrates on the image segmentation based on the combination of modulated intensity gradient and texture gradient. Image segmentation is an integral part of image analysis. In image processing different processes are done on images to enhance it at different parameters. These processes are not directly applied on images but before that it needs to be segmented or divided in smaller parts called pixels or small blocks of pixels. So segmentation becomes an integral and basic part in image analysis and error at this stage can influence other processing techniques. The performance of this method is compared with the available techniques. The proposed system improves the Mean Square Error (MSE), Maximum Error (MAXERR) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR).
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19 Hybrid Power Generation Using Solar, Wind and Micro Hydel
E C Prasad Nidumolu, S Girish, T Monica
Abstract – Hydel, solar, wind energies are the fastest growing renewable sources of energy. The electricity requirement of the world is increasing at an alarming rate due to industrial growth, increased and extensive use of electrical gadgets. The proposed system involves three types of power generations using solar, wind, and Hydel systems. The battery which is used can be recharged with the two generation inputs like solar and wind turbine. From this energy the water pump can be controlled using inverter design. From this water flow we can restore the energy generation through Hydel turbine set up. The battery is connected to the inverter. This inverter is used to convert the 12volt DC to the 230 Volt AC. This 230 volt AC voltage is used to activate the loads like water pump. Here we are also using conventional battery charger unit to recharge the battery. In this project we are using wind blade set up, Hydel based turbine set up, solar panel setup, geared dc motor Reverse polarity preventer cum polarity corrector, AC ripples neutralizer, unidirectional current controller.
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20 A Comparative Study between Reactive Powder Concrete and High Performance Concrete
L.Jaya, Sumanth Doodala, Dr.T.Suresh Babu
Abstract – Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) is composed of very fine powders (cement, sand, and silica fume), steel fibres (optional) and superplasticizer. A very dense matrix is achieved, and this compactness gives RPC ultra-high strength and durability properties. A comparison of the physical, mechanical and durability properties of RPC and high performance concrete (HPC) shows that RPC possesses better (Both compressive and flexural strength) results compared to HPC. HPC leads the way to achievement of the maximum compressive strength of the order say 120-150 Mpa or so. However, at such a level of strength, the coarse aggregate becomes the weakest link in concrete. In order to increase the compressive strength of concrete even further, the only way is to remove coarse aggregate. This philosophy has been employed in what today known as Reactive powder concrete. The principal objective of this study is to compare mechanical and durable properties of M60 grade High performance concrete with RPC120. In the present study, performance of reactive powder concrete without quartz powder and containing silicafume as a replacement for cement and High performance concrete M60 grade with silicafume as as admixture at the varying percentage of 0%, 5%, 10% , 15% and 20% by each is investigated. To compare the results of cement replaced mixture, specimens without cement replacement are also casted. Performance of the various mixes is tested by the Compressive strength, Flexure strength and Tensile strength. The results show improvement in compressive strength, flexural strength and Tensile strength in cement replaced mixes in Reactive powder concrete.
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21 Design and Implementation of Reactive Power with Multi Mode Control for Solar Photovoltaic Inverter in Low Voltage Distribution System
K.Sudhapriya, S.Preethi, M.Ejas Ahamed
Abstract – Small and medium scale solar photovoltaic inverters are interconnecting to the low voltage distribution system at a rapid growth. The grid connected solar photovoltaic inverters able to provide the reactive power to the low voltage distribution system. Reactive power capability of the solar photovoltaic inverter is depending upon the inverter’s rating and the solar power generation. In this project focuses on the reactive power management for solar photovoltaic (PV) inverter in low voltage distribution system. This strategy can be applied for various solar power generating conditions (no solar power generation, low solar power generation, maximum solar power generation, cloud passing solar power generation). During no and low solar power generation, the inverter inject reactive power and support the voltage by using Dynamic VAR compensation mode. During maximum solar power generation, the inverter absorbs reactive power and there by mitigating voltage rise using Droop characteristics approach. During passing clouds, the inverter will inject reactive power and reduce the voltage fluctuation using Ramp rate control. The objective of the project is to maintain the constant voltage level and to provide the fast reactive power control in low voltage distribution system. The power system model conveyed in the project is established on the MATLAB / SIMULINK R 2009 b platform. The results show that the solar photovoltaic inverter can be used for reducing the voltage rise, voltage fluctuation and improve the voltage profile in various solar power generating conditions.
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22 Pulse Charging Method for Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Applications
M.Ejas Ahamed, R.Ramya, K.Indirajith
Abstract – High Capacity Li-ion and Pub-acid batteries are broadly used in present Renewable Energy and EV applications. Consequently, charging these batteries in a minimum amount of time while maintaining efficiency is crucial. The need for fast charging has carried up the method of Pulse Charging. However, present pulse charging method which involves hard- switching, pose difficulties due to switching losses in the semiconductor devices. This paper represents a Fast Pulse Charging mechanism for High Capacity Pub-acid and Li-ion Batteries which minimize switching losses by Soft Switching. The operation of the methodology is concentrated on the Fully Clamped Quasi-resonant DC Link Converter which usefully generates current pulses to charge the battery in both between Constant Current (CC) and Constant Voltage (CV) phases. Switching losses are minimized by manipulating Zero Current Switching (ZCS), and the simulated results show that this can be achieved for higher switching frequencies further minimizing the circuit size. Experiments were conceded out by the research group for both conventional CC-CV method and for current pulse charging method. The results declared that proposed methodology reduces the charging time of Pub-acid batteries by 14.01% in comparison to the conventional CC-CV charging method.
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23 Performance Analysis of K-Means and Bisecting K-Means Algorithms in Weblog Data
K.Abirami, Dr. P.Mayilvahanan
Abstract – Web mining is used to discover interest patterns which can be applied to many real world problems like refining web sites, better understanding the user behavior, product approval etc. Data mining software is one of a number of analytical tools for analyzing data. In this paper we are studying the various clustering algorithms for segmentation model. The basic idea of clustering is to define the similarity between the distance, the distance that represents the data between the data to measure the similarity of the size of the data are classified, until all the data gathering is completed. Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of assigning a set of objects into groups (called clusters) so that the objects in the same cluster are more similar to each other than to those in other clusters. Our main aim to show the comparison of the different- different clustering algorithms of segmentation model and find out which algorithm will be most suitable for the users.
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24 PLC Based Timer Controller for Multiple Machines
T.Vignesh, N.Lakshmanakumar, S.Sethu, P.Kumarasamy, S.Gowthamraj
Abstract – This paper describes the design and development of a feedback control system that maintains the time of a process at a desired set point. The system consists of a PLC-based timer controller unit that provides input and output interfaces between the PLC and the man machine interface and computer system. The main difference from other computers is that PLCs are armoured for severe conditions such as dust, moisture, heat, cold etc., and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O) arrangements. The paper will provide details about the timer control unit, shows the implementation of the controller unit, and present test results.
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25 Comparison of Flexural, Split Tensile & Compressive Strength of HP-SCC using Magnetized Water
Sandesh Jadhav, Rahul S Patil
Abstract – The objective of the report is to plot an effective trend between the strengths of concrete viz. Flexural, Split Tensile & Compressive Strength of HP – SCC Concrete. This will help us understand the exact relation between the three different strengths of the material thereby forecasting & modifying the design phenomenon. Systematic testing of the raw materials, the fresh concrete and the hardened concrete is an inseparable part of any quality control programme for concrete which helps to achieve higher efficiency of the materials used and greater assurance of the performance of the concrete in regard to both strength and durability. Concrete has relatively high compressive strength,but significantly lower tensile strength,and as such is usually reinforced with materials that are in tension(often steel).The elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but starts decreasing at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops. Concrete would almost always fail from tensile stresses,even when loaded in compression .the practical implication of this is concrete elements subjected to tensile stresses must be reinforced with material that are strong in tension. Reinforced concrete is the most common form of concrete.
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26 Decision Based Algorithm for the Removal of High Density Salt and Pepper Noise in Images and Videos
S.Dinesh Krishnan, R.Manoj Kumar
Abstract – A Decision based algorithm for high-density salt and pepper noise removal in images and videos are proposed. The existing non-linear filter like Standard Median Filter, Adaptive Median Filter shows better results at low and medium noise densities. At high noise densities, their performance is poor. Decision based algorithm to remove high-density salt and pepper noise using sheer sorting algorithm is proposed. Results of the algorithm is compared with various existing algorithms and it is proved that the new method has better visual appearance and quantitative measures at higher noise densities as high as 90%. The proposed system works efficient with both Grey scale and coloured images. Divide the image into 3*3 blocks but the image should be in 255*255. By using shear sorting algorithm we will arrange in ascending order and remove the noise by getting the values of 0 and 255. A graph has been displayed to show the result when the noise has been added to image of 10 to 90% and removing the noise. The second phase has been tried the same with Video files which have been converted as frames. The noises at various densities have been applied to the frames. The PSNR and MSE values have been calculated and displayed in graph. Both image and video files have been demonstrated and the quality measures plotted.
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27 Fuzzy Vault: A Review
C.B.Vasantha laxmi, C.Keerthana
Abstract – This paper is a brief evaluation of fuzzy vault which is a biometric template security technique. Biometric based authentication has more benefit over traditional method such as password due to their uniqueness and necessary physical attendance at the time of verification. But there are large concerns about the safety and confidentiality of biometric technology. Fingerprint Identification is the most usually used biometric systems and fuzzy vault is a new method to secure the template. The purpose of this paper is to review all the important progresses in fuzzy vault till now.
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28 Essentiality of Green Building Practices for A better Future
Ar. Pooja Singh
Abstract – India, as a developing nation, is moving with a good spark with almost each and every sector. But in this race, somewhere, we are ignoring the negative impact of such rapid growth, on our society and environment. Majorly, the construction industry has put a larger leg into the emission of Greenhouse gases and various other pollutants as the definition for comfort has been changed to us. The negative impact, which such growth is imparting to the social order and most importantly to the environment, should not be overlooked and should be considered as a matter of immediate concern as it is going to harm our future generations and it should be rectified in time by adopting some good practices. In this article, we are going to discuss the importance of some good practices which should be adopted before, while and after the construction of a building, for moving towards sustainability.
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29 A Study on Copper Slag As Partial Replacement of Fine Agrregate
N.Sreenivasulu, A.Roopa, M.Venkateswarlu
Abstract – The objective of this project is to study the strength properties of copper slag as a partial replacement of sand at different levels (0%, 20% and 40%). Copper slag is a by-product obtained during the matte smelting and refining of copper. In the present investigation it is proposed to study the engineering properties of Copper slag viz. Slump test, compressive strength , split tensile strength after 7, 14 and 28 days at ambient room temperature curing. From the results, it is concluded that the increased replacement level of Copper slag) increased the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength values of mixes. Results recommended using Copper slag as Partial replacement sand are economical.
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