Welcome to International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Engineering Research (IJETER)

Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2017)

S.No Title & Authors Full Text
1 Design of 4-bit Flash ADC through Domino Logic in 180nm, 90nm, and 45nm Technology
V. Komali, G. Balaraju
Abstract - In this paper high speed 4-bit Flash analog to digital converter (ADC) through Domino logic was proposed. The proposed Flash ADC uses appropriate combination of both domino logic based double tail comparator and domino logic based thermometer to binary code converter. Domino logic allows rail to rail logic swing. It was developed to speed up the circuit. The proposed high speed 4-bit Flash Analog to digital converter through Domino logic was designed in 180nm, 90nm, and 45nm CMOS technology in CADENCE tool with supply voltage 1.2V at sampling rate of 4GS/s. The proposed Flash ADC consumes about 738.6nw power in 180nm technology and 164.0nw power in 45nm technology with delay 650.9ps in 180nm technology and 51.33ps in 45nm technology. The physical circuit more compact than previous design compare to power and delay.
2 Reconfigurable Micro Strip Patch Antenna Using Single Switch for Wideband Applications
Naman Thakur, Garima Saini
Abstract - Technique of using the single switch on transmission line to attain reconfigurability for wideband application is presented in the paper. Design is basically influenced from central feeding as well as use of switch on the transmission line. Choice of switch is entirely depend upon its usage and advantages over others. Study of microstrip patch design and its configuration mode with switch states (ON & OFF) is picturized in the paper. This work help to understand the usage of such antenna with different switch states which shows the wide operating range of RF signal providing good bandwidth and notches. By changing the ON and OFF states of switch interference can be blocked and available spectra can be detected. Proposed design is simulated on HFSS software.
3 Effect of Dielectric fluids used on EDM Performance: A Review
Kuldeep Singh, Gianender, Ajay Kumar Agarwal, Ajit, Rinki Yadav
Abstract - Electric Discharge machining is a well-known nonconventional machining process. In electric discharge machining Dielectric fluid plays an important role as material removal takes place due to repetitive spark discharge between an electrode and workpiece. The main functions of dielectric are too flushed through the spark gap to remove gaseous and solid debris during machining and to maintain the dielectric temperature by acting as a coolant. Dielectric fluids must have some properties such as low viscosity, good wetting capacity, and high flash point, etc. This paper will present a literature survey on the use of different dielectric and their effect on material removal rate and tool wear rate during EDM. For Gaseous dielectrics such as oxygen, Helium, Argon may also be used as a dielectric. For liquid dielectrics such as graphite and boron carbide powder mixed EDM are also employed in industries urea solution, hydrocarbon oil, and many additives mixed dielectric can be used. The use of vegetable oil-based fluids for industrial applications has a higher sustainability index compared to hydrocarbon and synthetic based fluids. Analysis has been performed for newly proposed Jatropha curcas oil based bio dielectric (Jatropha BD) fluid for material removal rate (MRR), the surface roughness (SR) and surface hardness (SH) in EDM process. The response patterns of Jatropha BD are similar to kerosene which is states that the effect of Jatropha BD is similar to kerosene. It is suggested that Jatropha oil based bio dielectric fluids can be used as an alternative to hydrocarbon-based dielectric for improving the sustainability of EDM process.
4 A Brief Study on the Various Noise Models in Digital Image Processing
Sruthi B, Dr. K. Nirmala
Abstract - In image processing, the noise reduction and restoration techniques are used for improving the qualitative analysis as well as the performance criteria of the quantitative analysis techniques of the image. Digital images are prone to a variety of noises which affects the quality. The primary goal of de-noising the image is to re-establish the details of the original image as much as possible. The criterion for the noise removal problem depends on the type of noise by which the image has been corrupted. In the field of image processing, there are several types of linear and non-linear filtering techniques available for eliminating noise from the images. Different methods for noise reduction and image enhancement is considered with their strength and limitations.
5 Study of Water Quality Parameters of the ground water of Atrauliya Nagar Panchayat Area of Azamgarh District
Shailendra Yadav, Shafqat Alauddin
Abstract - Ground water is the prime source of fresh water in this nagar panchayat area of Azamgarh district. The water samples are collected twice from the eleven sites selecting at least one from each ward of the nagar panchayat area, first sampling is done in the month of November 2014 and the other in February 2015. The physico -chemical parameters viz., colour, odour, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), hardness, chloride, calcium, pH and biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) were analyzed. In the most of the samples , water is colourless and does not impart turbidity. Only few samples have odour. TDS was very high in almost all the samples. The water is moderately hard. The concentration of calcium was within acceptable limit. The pH is above neutral in all the samples hence shows alkalinity. Chloride concentration was very high in the collected samples. The values of BOD were reported to be also high in the samples collected from the different sampling stations.
6 A Four-Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform Using Large Block Wise Image Compression
M. Fatima Parvin
Abstract - A Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) can be effortlessly implemented in software for using compression in the JPEG. In this research focused Four dimensional DCT (4D DCT) approximation are dignified in provisions of high-order tensor deduction more than a few multiplier less 16 * 16 probable technique are proposed. The formulation is complete to higher dimensions with random lengths. In this propose a 4D DCT that can be applied to lossless image coding with also direct-lifting of DCT. In this planned requires a Large side Information Block (LIB), it is validated by its application to lossless image coding. The artificial results showed that the approximate 4D DCT coding methods offer almost identical output visual quality when compared with exact DCT method. The intended 4D approximations were also working as a tool for visual quality improvement of the JPEG .The future approximations were fixed into 4D DCT-based video coding formats. Finally, we discuss how existing solutions can be modified to improve their compression.
7 3D Scanning for Reverse Engineering- Technological Advancements, Process Overview, Accuracy Inspection, Challenges and Remedies
Mudit Bansal, Sukhdeep S Dhami
Abstract - 3D scanning emerged as initial stage in reverse engineering for capturing surface geometry due to strides in speed and accuracy however capturing a three dimensional image digitally and converting to CAD model is not a doddle. 3D scanning technology has variations based upon principle used while capturing complete or partial measurement and varies with geometry and material properties of components each one associated with its own challenges. Reverse prototyping 3D printer is used to print a replica of the original object, and accurate general dimensions will be drafted and it is ensured that the 3D model has complete, water-tight surfaces and free from holes and misshaped areas, else the 3D printer may have problems in those areas. In this paper an industrial prototype with totally unknown dimensional parameters are scanned for reverse engineering. Once the 3D information is recorded by the scanner, it will send the information to a computer program and 3D model gets created from the scan but, the quality of final model depends upon surface characteristics, scanner parameters, scanning software as well as own artistic skills. Therefore data processing needs human intervention and poses a major challenge hence quality check and dimensional inspection analysis becomes ultimate necessity. For instance, based upon inspection analysis results alterations can be made in the model with the software and if needed scanning parameters are optimized and rescanning of prototypes and whole process is repeated till standard deviations are minimized within prescribed warning tolerance limits.
8 Seismic Analysis of R.C Building with Fixed and Flexible Base under Different Soil Conditions
L. Balasudheer, Dr. Chandan Kumar Patnaikuni, Dr. Balaji.KVGD, B.Santhosh Kumar
Abstract - Earthquakes have the potential to cause the greatest damages, among the other natural hazards. Earthquakes are maybe the most flighty and highly destructive of all the natural disasters. Structures are subjected to different earthquake loading, behaves differently with diversification in dense, medium and soft soil. Soil properties get affected drastically as seismic waves pass through a soil layer. When a structure is subjected to an earthquake excitation, it interacts with the foundation and soil, and thus changes the motion of the ground. It means that the movement of the whole ground structure system is influenced by type of soil as well as by the type of structure. In this study, different soil strata, with rigid and flexible base foundations types are illustrates and corresponding base shear and lateral displacement are determined with variation in floors as G+7, G+8 and G+9 for Earthquake Zones 3, 4 and 5. IS 1893: 2002 "Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures" gives response spectrum for different types of soil such as hard, medium and soft. A building is modelled using ETABS -2015 having different Winkler's springs as its foundation corresponding to different soil properties. To find out seismic performance of rigid and flexible to RCC building, parameters as Lateral displacement, Storey shear and Storey drift should be studied. It was found that by comparing the flexible base results with fixed base results, flexible base structure shows better seismic performance in all soil conditions.
9 A Review on Effect of Coatings on Tools and Surface Roughness as Vibration Resistance
A. Bovas Herbert Bejaxhin, G.Paulraj
Abstract - Cutting tools in the machining industry are required to provide a level of mechanical strength and chemical stability such that they provide both durability and performance. The state of the art suggests that the mechanical requirements can be met; however, corrosion and wear requirements particularly in severe conditions. Most of the coatings were used widely in the industry to improve the wear resistance of surfaces in the machine elements. It has high hardness with superior chemical and thermal stability. The effect of coating systems on the tool performance when turning and milling is outlined in this paper. The interaction of wear and thermo-mechanical degradation of the coatings will be described by the characteristics of the non-metallic inclusions of the material grades and the balance of the flank and rake face wear of the CVD and PVD coatings. Coatings significantly influence the machining performance of tools by acting as thermal barriers and by enhancing the wear resistance. To model how coatings influence the tool loading, analytical and numerical approaches have been proposed to gain understanding on the effect of coatings on the tool temperatures. In this review paper, various coatings and its applications were considered from the various investigators and also vibration control methods study were analyzed.
10 A Novel Resonant Topology for High Frequency Isolated Bidirectional Dual-Active-Bridge DC-DC Converter for Power Conversion Systems
Vikram Kumar, Vipan Kakkar
Abstract - Power conversion Systems (PCSs) using high frequency (HF) isolated bidirectional dc-dc converters (IBDCs) results in high power density, reduced weight, size and low noise without compromising efficiency, cost and reliability. The core circuit of these HF-PCSs is Dual-Active-Bridge (DAB) - IBDC. Large scale practical applications of DAB-IBDC for high frequency link (HFL) PCSs is expected with the recent advances in solid-state semiconductors, magnetic materials, capacitive materials and microelectronic technologies. In DAB-IBDC, soft switching solution is a research direction to improve the performance which includes improvement of HFL resonant tank circuits. The research necessary regarding the soft switching solution in DAB-IBDC includes ease of realizing soft switching by taking different topologies into consideration. A set of topologies have been considered which can be reduced to a generalized form for consideration with mathematical analysis as well as power throughput derivation. On the basis of this, a novel resonant topology has been proposed which is a combination of series and parallel resonant circuits and can be worked out on the basis of these generalized forms. In comparison to conventional DAB topologies, proposed resonant converter topologies reduce bridge currents thus lowering both conduction and switching losses. Results show that this topology offers higher efficiency over wide range of both input voltage and load conditions.
11 Variation in the Performance of Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Due to Climatic Parameters in Composite Climatic Zone
Satish Kumar Yadav, Usha Bajpai
Abstract - Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plant's performance is directly dependent on the sun's incoming solar radiation availability and its intensity. The energy yield of SPV Power Plant is limited by many climatic parameters like temperature, wind velocity, humidity, dust, rain etc. In this paper, the Performance of a 5kVA photovoltaic power plant installed at the Centre of Excellence in Renewable Energy Education and Research, University of Lucknow (New Campus) is calculated on the basis of the collected data of two reference modules. The data analysis shows that some climatic parameters degrade the performance of solar photovoltaic power plants like dust, temperature and humidity and some put positive effect on the output power of modules like rain. Due to deposition of dust, modules loss their output power upto 11.4 % in one Month. A correlation established between the different climatic parameters and the module efficiency, which is important to evaluate the daily and monthly yields of Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant. Performance Ratio of 5kVA photovoltaic power plant calculated on the basis of the regressed model and measured data. Regressed model is very useful for predicting the performance of the solar photovoltaic power plants in composite climatic conditions.
12 Reduction of Squared Euclidean Norm of LMS Channel Estimator with Equalizer
Anandbabu.Gopatoti, Kiran Kumar.Gopathoti
Abstract - In wireless communications, the channel has a typically long impulse response and the signal is highly correlated speech. The Standard Least Mean Square (LMS) channel estimator is used as a basis to this paper to estimate the active taps in channel with minimum estimation error. A Zero Tap detection scheme is used to estimate the active and inactive taps present in the unknown channel in place of Standard LMS algorithm. This scheme allows discrimination between active and inactive taps of the unknown channel. However, the detection scheme fails under colored input signal conditions. Hence, the scheme is modified to include a Tap Decoupling feature, which reverses the effect of the colored input signal. The proposed methods which are structurally consistent for both White and colored input signals. An Adaptive Equalizer which is incorporated with all proposed scheme to reduce the Squared Euclidean Norm. All the MatLab simulation results demonstrates that the design approach investigated in this paper is a promising alternative for reducing Squared Euclidean Norm of a channel estimator.
13 Use of Nanofluids as Radiator Coolant: A review
P.N. Tank, Chiragkumar M. Fadadu
Abstract - Nanotechnology deals with the new fluids called as nanofluids. With this technology development of fluid with enhanced heat transfer capability is developed by mixing nanoparticles with the base fluids, hence there is scope of making compact, lighter and more efficient thermal system. This paper gives the clear-cut summary of the recent research on the use of nanofluids as coolant in a radiator. The review mainly focused on the experimental study of various key researches on the performance of radiator with the use of nanofluids, effect of concentration of nanoparticles, effect of inlet temperatures of nanoparticles and property variation with the variation of particle size, shape and concentration. The potential application of nanofluids in a radiator is analyzed and it is observed that there is enhancement of heat transfer with the use of nanofluids. Further this effect intensified at higher concentration of nano particles. Challenges to use nanofluids are also discussed. It was seen that constant pumping criterion in a radiator to judge the performance of radiator with the use of nanofluid is found to be suitable.
14 Internet of Things: Opportunity and Security Issue
Veena Tripathi
Abstract - Now-a-days, smart grid, smart homes, intelligent transportation, are infrastructure systems that connect our world beyond our expectations. The 'Internet of Things' is an emerging topic of technical, social, and economic significance. Internet of things is the development of the internet in which everyday objects have network connectivity, allowing them to send and receive data. In our paper we have discussed about possible usage, scenarios and technological building blocks of the "Internet of Things"[1]. As the number of Internet-enabled devices increasing with the advent of IPv6 and wide deployment of Wi-Fi network the estimated number of active wireless connected devices will exceed 40 billion. The advantage of this expansion is that, we are able to do the things we never before imagined but as with every good thing, there's a downside of internet-enabled systems are attractive targets for cyber attack. Now the problem is that, how do we protect potentially billions of them from intrusions and interference that could compromise personal privacy. In the development of any IoT application security and testing frameworks play an important role. Our approach is to focus on problems of hacking the Internet-connected devices, create more secured and attack proof internet of things enabled devices and applications. This paper is mainly focusing on the concept of IoT architecture, security issues and area of research needed.
15 A Nonlinear Programming Problem Applying LINGO
Tanveer Ahmad Tarray, Muzafar Rasool Bhat
Abstract - In this paper the problem of stratified random sampling where randomized response technique is used in presence of non-response. Misreporting and refusal to respond are two main causes of misleading results from direct or open surveys when we ask about sensitive issues directly. Moral support for child abuse, drug usage, racism, induced abortion and illegal activities are in those issues to which individual either misreport or refuse to respond. Generally, individuals do not want to unveil their true status and want to keep it confidential because of the stigma attached with the question asked. Warner (1965) introduced a randomized response model to estimate a population proportion for sensitive attribute .The problem is formulated as a Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLPP) and is solved using Branch and Bound method. Also the results are formulated through LINGO.
16 A Comparative Study of High Efficiency DC/DC Boost Converters for Medium Power Applications
Furqan Zahoor, Swastik Gupta, Dr. Vipan Kakkar
Abstract - Switching Converters commonly known as DC/DC Converters have gained tremendous popularity due to their use in variety of applications such as hybrid energy systems, hybrid vehicles, satellite applications and portable electronic devices to name a few. The main positives of using high step up converters include improving voltage gain, reduction of voltage stress and current ripple. But these converters seem to have some disadvantages like very high EMI due to reverse recovery of the boost diode and considerable amount of losses which occur due to hard switching of the boost switch. Many variations of the original boost circuit schematic have been suggested to overcome these problems. The Zero Voltage Transition (ZVT) Boost converter and Zero Current Transition (ZCT) Boost converter are such solutions. These soft switching topologies employ an auxiliary resonant circuit which affects the working only when the boost switch is turning on or off. Employing the auxi1iary circuit allows the boost switch to turn on and off under zero voltage and zero current conditions respectively thus reducing the switching losses. The aim of this review is focused on high step-up voltage and high efficiency DC/DC Boost converters with high voltage gain. This paper presents the comparison across number of parameters of the various soft switching Boost topologies.
17 Taguchi Optimization Technique for Cutting Parameters of High Speed Turning of Inconel 718 by using Cubic Boron Nitride and Alumina Ceramic KY 1615
Murali Krishna Yantrapati, Venkatesh INellore, Mahendra Babu Mekala
Abstract - Alloy Inconel 718, a nickel based superalloy, developed initially for use in rotating parts in aerospace and gas turbine applications, has become the preferred material for the manufacture of Wellhead Components, Auxiliary and Down Hole Tools and Sub-Surface Safety Valves. Super alloy Inconel 718 is widely used in sophisticated applications due to its unique properties desired for the engineering applications. Due to its peculiar characteristics machining of Super alloy Inconel 718 is difficult and costly. The present work is an attempt to make use of Taguchi optimization technique to optimize cutting parameters during high speed turning of Inconel 718 using Cubic Boron Nitride and Alumina Ceramic KY 1615. The cutting parameters are cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut for turning of work piece material Super Alloy Inconel 718. In this work, the optimal parameters are cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The parametric model of cutting tool and work piece assembly is done in Pro/Engineer and analysis is done in Ansys. The cutting parameters considered are Cutting Speed - 2000rpm,3500rpm and 5500rpm, Feed Rate - 250mm/min,500mm/min and750mm/min and Depth of Cut is0.3mm,0.6mm and 0.9mm. Taguchi method is a powerful design of experiments (DOE) tool for engineering optimization of a process. It is an important tool to identify the critical parameters and predict optimal settings for each process parameter. Taguchi method is used to study the effect of process parameters and establish correlation among the cutting speed, feed and depth of cut with respect to the major machinability factor, cutting forces such as cutting force and feed force. Validations of the modeled equations are proved to be well within the agreement with the experimental data. Process used in this project is turning process. Modeling is done in Pro/Engineer and analysis is done in ANSYS.
18 Computational Fluid Dynamics and Couple Field Analysis of Gas Turbine Blade by using Super Alloy Inconel-718
Murali Krishna Yantrapati, Venkatesh INellore, Mahendra Babu Mekala
Abstract - A turbine blade is the individual component which makes up the turbine section of a gas turbine. The blades are responsible for extracting energy from the high temperature, high pressure gas produced by the combustor. The turbine blades are often the limiting component of gas turbines. To survive in this difficult environment, turbine blades often use exotic materials like super alloys and many different methods of cooling, such as internal air channels, boundary layer cooling, and thermal barrier coatings. In this project, a turbine blade is designed and modeled in 3D modeling software Pro/Engineer. The design is modified by changing the base of the blade to increase the cooling efficiency. Since the design of turbo machinery is complex, and efficiency is directly related to material performance, material selection is of prime importance. In this project, two materials are considered for turbine blade titanium alloy and nickel alloy. Optimization is done by varying the materials Titanium alloy and Super Alloy by performing coupled field analysis on the turbine blade for both the designs. In this project, CFD technique is employed to investigate the flow the fluid over the turbine blade. Analysis is done in Ansys 14.5 Version.
19 Enhanced Fault Tolerant Parallel FFTs Using Parseval Checks and Error Correction Codes Using Ancient Indian Mathematics
Panjala Kranthi Kumar, P. Anuradha
Abstract - The convolution in signal processing systems and communication circuits rises per annum. This can be attained using CMOS technology scaled down to a single device. Soft errors creates dependability hazard in recent circuit systems. Signal processing and communication system circuits aren't exclusion in the current advancement. In few utilizations, a possible activity is that use of algorithmic based fault tolerance (ABFT) approaches that are strive and deed of recursive attributes in recognize as well as rectify faults. Communications and Signal processing utilities are more compatible to algorithmic based fault tolerance. A few key building blocks in devices are FFTs. Many secured techniques suggested for recognize as well as rectify faults in FFTs. Amidst of techniques, most likely utilization of Sum of squares or parseval check is the most generally glorious. At a recent time, one method employs that put into effect of fault tolerance projected over similar filters. During irregularity, the system first implemented for lookout Fast Fourier Transforms. Later two more advanced security approaches are used by mixing for utilization of project and correct of parseval checks and error correction codes.
20 Casting Simulation for Diesel Engine Flywheel by using Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing
Murali Krishna Yantrapati, Venkatesh INellore, Mahendra Babu Mekala
Abstract - Casting is one of the old procedures done on metals. Many products are formed using this method. The casting process like sand casting process which are the oldest casting process since 1950. The texture of the product depends upon the sand used for casting. The final product should be smooth at the end. Usually iron, steel, brass, aluminium, magnesium alloys are used to manufacture the flywheel. In this project, the S-Glass composite material is used to cast the Diesel Engine Flywheel. In this project, includes the CAD technologies combined with process simulation tools are increasingly used to optimize the filling and solidification of cast parts. This project describes the newly developed simulation of flywheel component via casting route. Results of the casting trails showed a high level of confidence in the simulation CAD and CAM tools.
21 Header Based Spam Filtering Using Machine Learning Approach
M Mubasher Hassan, Dr. Mirza Waseem Hussain
Abstract - Email is one of the fastest, easiest and cost effective means of communication. However, spam not only wastes our precious and limited resources, but also possess a security risk; therefore, there should be an effective means by which we can avoid this nuisance. In this paper, an effective machine learning approach for filtering the spam is proposed, by identifying potential header and body fields. The Machine learning dataset used is combination of open source spambase and custom developed dataset for header fields. Weka in combination with naive-bayes classification technique is applied using machine learning based dataset encompassing certain header field based attributes. A mail client is designed in asp.net, which is used as an interface that separates the header and body of the mail. The effectiveness of the proposed machine learning approach was compared with one that does not use machine learning approach and it was found the proposed approach performed better when using machine-learning approach.
22 Durability Properties of Geopolymer Concrete Using Silica Fume for M60 Grade
Mendu Uday Bhaskar, Jammi Nagraj
Abstract - As far as possible, the technology that is currently in use to manufacture and testing of ordinary Portland cement concrete were used. Silica fume was chosen as the basic material to be activated by the geopolymerization process to be the concrete binder, to totally replace the use of Portland cement. The binder is the only difference to the ordinary Portland cement concrete. To activate the rich silicon content in silica fume, a combination of sodium hydroxide solution and sodium silicate solution was used. Manufacturing process comprising material preparation, mixing, placing, and compaction and curing are reported in the thesis. Naphthalene based super plasticiser was found to be useful to improve the workability of fresh silica fume based geopolymer concrete, as well as the addition of extra water. The M60 grade is used in this paper with different water/binder ratios for case 1, 0.3 for GPC(Geopolymer concrete) and 0.3 for OPC(Orginary portland concrete) case 2 , 0.34 for GPC(Geopolymer concrete) and 0.32 for OPC(Ordinary portland concrete) and the test specimens are prepared and cured in different durability parameters and these specimens are analysed. And made a comparison of two cases of the durability properties.
23 Performance Evaluation of 65 HP Transmission System of a Tractor
Aneesh Longia, Dr. S. S. Banwait
Abstract - The basic design of a tractor has remained the same for a number of years. Constant efforts are being made to improve the performance and bring down the cost of producing a tractor. The transmission system of a tractor comprises of two main assemblies, the housings which form the chassis and the gears, shafts etc. which form the gear train. The concern of using the chassis of a tractor designed for handling a certain magnitude of loads in a tractor which will encounter much higher operating load, for any chance of failure of chassis as well as the parts of transmission system such as gears, shafts and bearings have been discussed. The present work provides a critical analysis of the chassis transmission system of 65 HP tractor and concludes that the same chassis and transmission system can be used as specified for 50 HP tractor.
24 Solving VRP in an Indian Transportation Firm through Clark and Wright Algorithm: A Case Study
Prateek Mittal, Nikhil Garg, Himank Ambashta, Charanjeev Mehndiratta
Abstract - This article represents a case of an Indian transportation firm wherein vehicle routing problem has been solved using Clark and Wright algorithm. Vehicle routing problems have generally an exact solution, heuristic based solution or meta-heuristic based solution. Clark and Wright method basically involves a heuristic based approach. This article suggests the possible improvements in loading of the vehicles while optimizing the route to enhance profits.
25 Comparison the Behavior of Cast Iron and Carbon Graphite as Piston Materials Applied Thermal Load as Heat Flux Using Finite Element Analysis
Jatender Datta, Dr. Sahib Sartaj Singh
Abstract - This paper describes the behavior of Carbon Graphite and Cast Iron applied heat flux value of 100 W/m^2.k on the top of the piston model and found the maximum and minimum temperature distribution, critical area and heat transfer result using finite element analysis technique. Piston of 100cc hero bike was taken for analysis and did reverse engineering using Dassault Systemes's Solidworks and the model was meshed in solidworks simulation module for analysis. The main motive is to find the critical temperature distribution area and behavior of carbon graphite and cast iron after applied the thermal load on both the materials turn by turn and find out the better material should be used for piston of IC engine to increase the engine performance.
26 Six Hole Fracture Fixation Plates: Comparative Mechanical Properties Study
Mohd Afian Omar, Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly
Abstract - This paper presents an experimental comparative study between 6 holes implant produced by Metal Injection Moulding (MIM) process with the commercially available plates manufactured via machining process. MIM implant has been compared with four commercially available 6 holes stainless steel implants. The study data variables are the ultimate tensile strength, hardness, Young's modulus and elongation. Methods employed in this experiment are Tensile Test using Series IX Automated Material Testing System 8.33.00, Vickers Hardness Equipment and Scanning Electron Microscope. The results showed that the mechanical properties of MIM implant were as good as the commercially available machining implants. The most encouraging result was that the MIM plates had the highest Young's Modulus and elongation among the specimens. This demonstrates that MIM samples are the least susceptible to implant failure as it can withhold more stress before it fractures.
27 Analyze the Behavior of Carbon Graphite & Aluminum Alloy 2618 As Piston Material Applied Heat Flux Load on the Both of Materials of Piston Using Finite Element Method
Jatender Datta, Dr. Sahib Sartaj Singh
Abstract - This paper describes the thermal load analysis and comparison of piston made of Carbon Graphite and Aluminum alloy 2618. An example of 100 cc hero bike piston has been taken and drawn a 3D model with the help of measuring instruments using Solidworks software. The main motive is to find the Resultant Temperature Gradient value and location where maximum and minimum temperature occur as well as find the temperature distribution with applied the heat flux value of 100 W/m^2.k. The meshing of model of piston was done in solidworks simulation software used for analysis to find the result and comparison between both of materials of piston.

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