Welcome to International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Engineering Research (IJETER)


Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2017)

S.No Title & Authors Full Text
1 Curve Fitting Of Cumulative Discovery and Production of Nigerian Petroleum Resources Using Composite Underground Reservoir
Okere P.C., Kamalu C.I.O., Onyelucheya O.E., Nwakaudu M.S., Obijiaku J.C.
Abstract - In this work, models were first developed from material balance of Nigerian petroleum around a composite reserve. Process control concepts were introduced to obtain the transfer functions so that as input functions are varied, new models are obtained, to note which input have the best impact. Hubbert oil depletion concept was employed for the peak determination. The Nigerian Petroleum Data were obtained from the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) of the Ministry of Petroleum and Minerals Resources, 7 Kofo Abayomi Street, Victoria Island, Lagos, as the experimental data for 57 years giving 57 data points. MatLab Package 7.9 version was employed in the mathematical computations and curve-fittings. From the curve-fitted plots, It is found that the Nigerian oil reserve will finish in the year 2682AD and the gas will follow sooth in the year 3151AD.
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2 Optimization of Weld Bead Geometry in GMAW Process Using RSM
Dharmendra Kumar, Ravindra Kumar Jain
Abstract - Now a day's using of automatic & robotic system of welding leads a vital role for the fabrication industries in terms of maintaining their quality and productivity. And also helps them to come out from the problems such as lack of skilled welders, health & safety needs. To make more use of these type of system. This is very essential to choose the correct method and parameters which would satisfy the required nature of the weld bead. To get a high quality of welding all the various variables should be balanced in a corrective way, so in this paper we have focused on the high quality of welding all the various variables should be balanced in a corrective way.
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3 Smart Airfield Lighting System (SALS) Based on ARM7 for Airport Ground Lighting
Anita S Kamalapurkar, Pallavi B.V, Veeresh Pujari, Dr. Baswaraj Gadgay, Dr.Ambresh P A
Abstract - Smart Airfield Lighting System (SALS) offers smart airport runway lighting management capabilities based on the ARM 7 Core M3 processors. SALS provide a simple mechanism of switching ON the airfield ground light system whenever the sensors detect the motion of inbound and outbound aircraft coming towards and depart from the airport runway. It provides smart ground lighting system to help improve the air traffic control system from one end to the other. It delivers location specific responses, increased visibility, precision docking information and real-time situational awareness help to promote the safety of staff and passenger. It also helps to improve the airport system by intelligently gaining an integrated view from perimeter for pilot to assist and responding swiftly and mitigating associated impact. SALS will enhance ground capacity by integrating and streamlining information systems and technology. A mini prototype of airport runway had been developed throughout this project to test the capabilities of ARM processor.
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4 Effect of Different Cutting Tools and Cutting Parameters on MRR and Surface roughness in CNC Turning
MD Nadeem Alam, Saigeeta Priyadarshani, MD Mahfuj Alam
Abstract - In this present work, study has been made to optimize the cutting parameters of CNC turning operation to get better surface finish and MRR. The combined effects of the type of cutting tool and process parameters on performance characteristics are investigated employing Taguchi's, Orthogonal Array method and analysis of variance. The result shows the type of tool material, feed rate and spindle speed strongly influence surface roughness. But the material removal rate influenced by depth of cut and feed rate and type of tool material provided to the turning operation. The experimental data were further analyzed to predict the optimal range of type of tool material, depth of cut, feed rate, and spindle speed to get improved surface finish and material removal and to correlate between cutting parameters and performance characteristics by using multiple linear regression analysis. Taguchi Orthogonal Array L9 has been used as a DOE (Design of Experiment) method to program and analyses the experiments. It has been investigated the type of tool material is most significant factor that influence the output responses of surface roughness followed by feed rate and spindle speed. Carbide tool provides better surface finish and increase in feed rate and spindle speed gives more surface roughness. But MRR value is most significantly influenced by depth of cut followed by feed rate and tool material. Aluminum 6063 has been selected as workpiece material, HSS and Carbide tool is used as cutting tools.
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5 Performance Analysis on Diesel Engine using Neem and Soya Bean Oil
Dr. R. Siva subramaniyam, A. Girish
Abstract - A study on performance analysis on Diesel Engine using Neem and Soya bean oil was investigated. The experimental investigations were carried out in a single cylinder 4-stroke water cooled diesel engine developing 3.7 kW at 1500 RPM. The engine was coupled to a rope brake dynamometer to measure the output, fuel flow rates were timed with calibrated burette. The blends of B10, B15, and B20 of Methyl Ester of Neem and Soya bean oil - Diesel was prepared by volume basis and used for experimental purpose. The engine was loaded in steps of 1.5 kg, 3kg and 4.5 kg. The engine speed, fuel consumption were recorded. Various performance parameters were evaluated such as BTE, BSFC, and TFC. The Study showed that using 100% Diesel, the Brake Thermal Efficiency decreases compared to base engine where as Brake Specific fuel Consumption increases. B15 blend of Neem oil yield the best blend with diesel and had the better results with Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption.
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6 IOT Based Blood Bank Services
T.Sravani, Vandana Khare, Vandana Sharma
Abstract - IOT based Blood Bank is an associate work that brings voluntary blood donors and those in need of blood on to a common platform. The mission is to complete every blood request in the country with a promise android application and motivated individuals who are willing to donate blood. Donor will be provoked to enter a person's points of interest, similar to name, telephone number, and blood gathering. In the earnest time of a blood prerequisite, you can rapidly check for blood donation centers or healing centers coordinating a specific or related blood gathering and contact them through the App. Blood donation center App gives rundown of blood donation centers in your general vicinity. An expansive number of blood givers are pulled in utilizing an Android application. Since practically everybody conveys a cell phone with him, it guarantees moment area following and correspondence. Just an enlisted individual, with ability to give blood, will have the capacity to get to the administration. In this application we are utilizing the IOT innovation that will be utilized far and wide to the blood donation center. The system has been implemented and tested using the Raspberry Pi 3 board, HTML language.
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7 Remote Security Surveillance by IoT Based Robot
N Sravya Sruthi, P. Raveendra Babu, Rashmi Mishra
Abstract - This paper presents the control of terrorist attack throughout the world by monitoring and controlling of mobile robot via internet through Raspberry pi board. The monitoring and controlling of robotic movements through wireless network by using a web browser and accessing a webpage through an IP address. A camera is mounted on the robot to get better visibility of the objects. The programming language of the robot is based on the LINUX platform which will be interfaced with Raspberry Pi board. The PIR sensor detects a person or an object enters into a surveillance area and the smoke sensor detects the fire accidents by sensing the smoke level increase in the atmosphere. Proximity sensor is used to detect the metal. The output of the sensors can be indicated via alarm and message through GSM to the user. This mobile robot can be operated from everywhere in the world by using internet of things (IOT).
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8 Study of Antihyperglycemic Effect of Medicinal Plant Fenu Greek - Anti Diabetic
Shireen Mahala Tagore, Dr.H.Saleem, Dr. Kaleem Ahmed Jaleeli, Adeel Ahmed
Abstract - Now a day's natural /herbal product are more useful rather than synthetic products because of their high medicinal values, biocompactibility, availability and cheaper cost. The aim of the present paper is to highlight hypoglycemia (glyro compound) apart from other functional groups present in fenugreek seeds .This is done with a help of fast, accurate and analytical tool of ATR/FTIR. The extract of fenugreek seeds is taken in the powder form and passed through FTIR along with KBr pellets. So, that the bioactive compound like glyro obtained from the data in a short span can be used for diabetic treatment by ayurvedic experts.
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9 Parametric Study on the Structural Behavior of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel and Bridge Deck Applicability
Elza Thomas Ukken, Beena B.R.
Abstract - Honeycomb sandwich panel is a sandwiched composite structure in which a honeycomb core is sandwiched between a top and bottom face sheet. Honeycomb core is a series of cells which is nested together to form a core. Top and bottom of this core is bonded to a top and bottom face sheet by an adhesive layer. The basic idea of honeycomb panel was to use the honeycomb as a shear web between two skins. It provides minimal density and high out-of-plane compression and shear properties. It has high strength to weight ratio and good impact resistance. Structural properties of honeycomb structure depends it's lower and upper face sheet thickness, the core material thickness, cell diameter, cell angle and foil thickness. Honeycomb cores are one of the most structurally efficient constructions, especially in stiffness-critical applications. Material used for the honeycomb construction also has very important in its structural performance This study presents the static and dynamic analyses of honeycomb sandwich structures and their applicability in bridge deck constructions. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of geometric parameters such as lower and upper face sheet thickness, the core material thickness, cell diameter, and core configuration on the structural performance of the honeycomb panel. For this static analysis of panels were performed to find the deformation and shear stress with varying parameters. Mainly three core geometries square, hexagonal and rhombic were studied. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of sandwich structures fabricated with different configurations has been determined through modal analysis. Transient analyses were performed to analyse the effect moving loads on the deck panel with different core geometry and different material. The studies were performed with ANSYS 16 package.
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10 Modeling and Failure Analysis of Universal Joint using ANSYS
Rahul Arora
Abstract - Vehicle transmission framework comprises a few parts which in some cases experience the ill effects of various burdens (disappointments). An all inclusive joint comprise of two yokes, one on each pole, associated by cross-molded middle of the road part i.e. creepy crawly. Yoke get together are constantly subjected to torsion and shear. Era of stress, removal and strain in a general coupling has been broke down. Yoke get together are turning part and here and there experience the ill effects of weakness by use of variable torque. In this paper limited component investigation of the part is done to discover the stress and deformation of the last item. For demonstrating of the segment Solidworks CAD software is utilized. Pre- handling work like cross section and examination work is done in ANSYS CAE software. Utilizing FEA investigation, we can recognize the nature and qualities of stresses following up on the Yoke and evaluate the impact of the load/mass geometry/boundary limit conditions over the yoke.
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11 A Collaborative Filtering Recommender System for Github
Surbhi Sharma, Anuj Mahajan
Abstract - GitHub, a collaborative source code hosting site is based on Git, version control system. GitHub allows users to fork a repository on which one may be interested in and then one can commit changes via a pull request to the maintainer of that repository. GitHub offers REST APIs to perform data analytics. There are a huge number of repositories on the GitHub and one may find it difficult to choose a repository to contribute to. In this paper, we are proposing a Collaborative Filtering based recommender system for GitHub which may provide recommendations regarding which repositories are relevant to a user. Precise recommendations on targeted repositories may save time browsing the relevant repositories but is restricted to the limitations of the collaborative filtering approach. Collaborative Filtering Approach takes into consideration the preferences of similar users. Various correlation measures can be used to find the similarity between users. We have restricted our experimentation in this paper to only Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Cosine Similarity to find and cross-check similar users and then we have applied a Similarity Threshold to filter off un-similar users.
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12 Numerical Study on Strengthening Of RC Deep Beam with Openings
Bilna Pappachan, Paul Jose
Abstract - Reinforced concrete deep beams are widely used as transfer girders in offshore structures and foundations, walls of bunkers and load bearing walls in buildings. The presence of web openings in such beams is frequently required to provide accessibility such as doors and windows or to accommodate essential services such as ventilating and air conditioning ducts. Enlargement of such openings due to architectural/mechanical requirements and a change in the building's function would reduce the element's shear capacity, thus rendering a severe safety hazard. When such enlargement is unavoidable adequate measures should be taken to strengthen the beam and counteract the strength reduction. This research aims to investigate how to increase the structural strength of reinforced concrete deep beam with openings. Two approaches are under consideration; internal strengthening and external strengthening, the first is the effect of steel reinforcement bars near the opening, and the second is attaching FRP layers around the opening. The software ANSYS 16 is used to handle the nonlinear finite element analysis. The FRP strengthened structures may fail by de-bonding of fibres from the concrete surface. Mechanical anchoring systems has been introduced in order to prevent the de-bonding of FRP composite sheets from the beam surface. The size, shape and location of the openings varied for different models. Square openings of sizes 180 x 180mm & 120 x 120mm and circular openings of diameter 160mm & 100mm were provided. Externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer sheets were found to be very effective in enhancing the ultimate load and strength of the RC deep beams. Introducing reinforcement bars around both the square and circular openings also enhance the ultimate strength of the beam. Increase in the opening size, regardless of the shape led to the reduction in the shear strength of the beams. The mechanical anchors was found to be effective in preventing the de bonding failure.
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13 Optimality of Central Composite Designs Augmented from One-half Fractional Factorial Designs
Anthony F. Capili, Fe F. Largo
Abstract - The central composite design (CCD) is a popular choice for fitting the second-order model. This popularity may be due to the design's flexibility and use in sequential experimentation. CCDs can be constructed by augmenting a full factorial or a fractional factorial design (resolution III and V). This study explored the optimality of CCDs that are augmented from one-half fractional factorial designs. The rotatability and approximate orthogonality of this type of CCDs were investigated. In addition, for specified designs, the alphabetic criterion values based on the D, A, E, and V were calculated. An R script containing functions were developed for this study. The R script was used in determining the rotatability and approximate orthogonality. The D, A, E, and V criteria values were also calculated using the same R script. The conditions for CCDs to be rotatable and approximately orthogonal were presented in the results. Furthermore, the recommended axial distance and center points to achieve reasonable alphabetic criterion values were also given. The results may be used as a reference or guide in choosing an appropriate combination of axial distance and center points in a central composite design.
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14 Investigation on Mechanical Behaviour of Hybrid Composite Bumper Using Sisal Fibre
Yuvaraj.K.P, Ashoka Varthanan.P, Karthik.V, Manikandan.V
Abstract - In this exploration work, the wellbeing of automobiles and travellers the bumper is considered, which is one of the fundamental key structures of car part which is manufactured with the mixture composite material picked. The material chosen for the guard is sisal, E-glass which are filaments and PLA (Poly Lactic Acid), which is the pitch to give quality to the fibre. The primary goal is to test the effect quality of the material in the wake of knowing the ductile properties of the example made by the material that is picked determined previously. The elastic properties of the materials can be controlled by UTM (Universal Testing Machine) and dead weight tests can be directed for finding the effect quality tentatively. The guard made of sisal/E-glass fortified PLA contrasted and the consequences of E-glass/epoxy. At last the model of guard made by utilizing Pro-E and broke down utilizing ANSYS, at that point contrasted and test estimations of effect quality.
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15 Designing and Commissioning of a Solar PV-DG Hybrid Power Plant for an Industry
Adarsh Chandel, D Buddhi, Hari Kumar Singh, Sanjay Vashistha
Abstract - A renewable energy network integrating energy storage systems can alleviate the intermittent as well as high-frequency interruption in network by providing output power to a specific load or the grid-connected systems. Fluctuations in solar radiations incident on a SPV panels and variations in the wind velocity can significantly affects in the generated output by such networks. Instability in the off-grid power plant occurs, when an off-grid system incorporates significant amount of solar generated energy due to unavoidable fluctuation of the solar irradiation. Under such scenario, the energy storage system can act as buffer ensuring the supply of uninterrupted and stable power. As more and more of the energy is preferred to be derived from solar, maintaining a stable power supply has become increasingly challenging. A solution to this problem was identified as an off-grid hybrid power plant integrated with energy storage. The proposed work in the form of case study emphasizes on designing and commissioning of an off-gird 3.5 MWp SPV-DG hybrid power plant, with storage system. 5 units of 500 KVA DG set each are installed at site location of Rajasthan, INDIA.
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16 Design a Model with Dual Band Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) & Impedance Modeling Assumptions
Payal Jindal, Dr. Sudheer Sharma
Abstract - This paper shows a specific design of an antenna with a enhance gain bandwidth in RF range. This design FSS structure consists of a square Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) structures placed on a substrate. In this paper i am using FR4 substrate. The circular and square slot is added on the FSS sheet to modify this design. The enhancement of bandwidth of antenna is attributed to the positive reflection phase gradient of an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structure. The proposed FSS is a multilevel metallic whole array (MHA) working at 8 GHz. Results show an increment of the maximum gain of 8 dB with regard to a single open waveguide, with a small increment of the antenna's height.
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17 Comparative Study of Different Log Domain Integrators
Harjeet Kour, Rockey Gupta, Vinod Kumar and Susheel Sharma
Abstract - Low voltage linear circuits have limited dynamic range and so input signal should be kept several times less than the bias level to reduce the harmonic distortion. For higher dynamic range, large bias levels are needed that causes large power consumption. Therefore, log domain technique is employed which uses companding method to overcome the aforesaid problem. Companding technique compresses the input signal to be further processed and later the output signal is expanded back to obtain the output signal in proportional to the input. In this paper, log domain integrators using CMOS, floating-gate MOSFET (FGMOS) and quasi-floating-gate MOSFET (QFGMOS) have been discussed and their performance has been compared. The CMOS log domain integrator shows pass band gain of -0.5 dB with -3 dB frequency of 165.6 MHz while for FGMOS and QFGMOS based integrators, the pass band gains are -0.8 dB and -0.5 dB with -3 dB frequencies of 6.84 MHz and 153.08 MHz respectively. It has been found that QFGMOS log domain integrator shows better results as compared to FGMOS based log domain integrator in terms of power dissipation, input resistance, output resistance, -3 dB frequency and current gain. The behavior of these circuits has been verified through PSpice simulations using level 7 parameters in 0.13 m technology obtained from TSMC with supply voltage of 1V.
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18 Review on Effect of Various Types of Reinforcement Particles on Mechanical Behavior of 6061 and 7075 Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite
Nishant Verma, P.S Rao, S.C.Vettivel
Abstract - This review deals with the effect of various reinforcement particles on mechanical behavior of Aluminium Alloys based composite. The composite material fabricated by various advanced processes like Stir Casting, Squeeze Casting, Mechanical Alloying and Plasma arc sintering by introducing different weight percentages of reinforcement material. In this review the improvement in mechanical properties like Hardness, Tensile Strength, Compression Strength and Wear behavior of 6061 and 7075 Aluminium Alloys matrix composites are discussed.
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19 Comparative Performance Analysis of Cryogenic Treated Carbide Tools
Sameem Ahmed, P.Sudhakar Rao, Sukhdev Singh
Abstract - Surface roughness became important issue for industries for sustainable manufacturing. Surface finish became improve by using method such as optimal cutting condition, cutting fluid, coatings and heating process. Another method tool life became improvement such as cryogenic treatment .Metal cutting operation it became necessary to reduce surface roughness and improve the product quality. A comparative investigation of the Ra (surface roughness) behaviour of with cryogenically tungsten carbide inserts and without cryogenically tungsten carbide inserts in dry machining. The tungsten carbide inserts square-shaped and cryogenic has done at -196 C. Experimental has designed by Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. ANOVA analysis machining parameters has affected on the Ra . The analyzed result was using ANOVA and signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) and with cryogenic tungsten carbide inserts better result compared to that without uncryogenic tungsten carbide inserts in machining conditions .In cryogenic depth of cut has maximum affected on Ra.
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20 An Investigative Study on the Effect of Various Parameters on Static and Dynamic Response of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
Amritha Treesa, Akshara S P
Abstract - Hyperbolic cooling towers are doubly curved cylindrical thin shell RC structures commonly used to provide cooling for large commercial buildings, industrial plants, steel mills etc. This paper discusses the static and dynamic response of two existing hyperbolic cooling towers of Bellary Thermal Station (BTPS) with varying height and thickness. ANSYS Workbench 16 is used for the analysis assuming top end free and bottom end fixed. These structures have been analyzed for self-weight, seismic loads and wind loads. Results are illustrated in graphical and tabular format. The improvement in structural performance based on stiffening rings is studied and a cooling tower with less liability to failure is suggested.
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21 Microcontroller Based Attendance System Using RFID and GSM
Anil Kumar Shukla
Abstract - Integration of radio frequency identification technology and GSM technology had shown wide applications in the automation of electronic systems. In this paper the design of microcontroller based attendance system using RFID and GSM modem has been presented which will automatically update the attendance of the students and send the SMS to the absentee's parent for the continuous monitoring of the attendance of his/her ward.
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22 Rejuvenating Cultural Desire: A Case of Moti Rudrani; Cultural Village
Ar. Ghufran Ahmad Khan, Ar. Chinmayi Saxena, Ar. Ariz Ali
Abstract - Promoting rich and varied culture of a place and enhancing the economy of backward classes are one of the major objectives of rural tourism. Rural tourism focuses on actively participating in a rural lifestyle. Rural tourism allows the creations of replacement source of income. The paper comprises of a proposed cultural village- Moti Rudrani, Gujarat. The proposal showcases the vernacular architecture and rich culture for the tourists. Main focus has been given to research and study of the local culture and tradition. The project has goal of using architecture as a way of communicating ideas of cultural tourism. Technical aspect and detail of services are not considered as main focus. Physically challenged persons are welcomed to the village but certain areas are restricted for them due to topography of the place. The aim of the project is to encourage and strengthen the rural economy by assisting in the development of tourism. This will be achieved by giving proposal for that particular area and make a definite contribution to the regeneration and long term sustainability of that area. This paper explores the role of architecture according to the principles of tourism in rural India. We will be using architecture as a way of economically supporting struggling villagers. The usage of locally available materials thus relating more to the surroundings. We need to design that compliments the climatic pattern and topography of the place. This paper also showcases the design that narrows down the gap between villagers and the outside world. Design that upgrades the present living conditions of the villagers. Design also highlights the natural beauty of the village setting and surrounding.
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23 Computer Based Device Controlling Using Zigbee
Anil Kumar Shukla
Abstract - We are in the age where the need for wireless communication in home is increasing day by day and technologies are being discovered by the minute. The paper demonstrates a way for wireless controlling of home appliances using a Computer. The Computer will communicate with the help of a zigbee module which consists of both transmitter and receiver. This project will be able to control electrical appliances such as fan, bulbs, doors etc by sending commands through the computer using software called hyperlink. Communication is done through XBEE wireless communication. Commands will be inputted on the computer and accordingly anyone of the appliances connected to the relays will be switched ON/OFF. Sensors have been attached to the rooms which will sense any movement and switch off lights if there are none thus saving electricity. An alternative method for controlling the appliances has also been made in this project. The appliances can be switched on and off using a remote which has a total of 8 buttons, each for switching on and off the appliances.
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24 Design Trends of a Low Power Successive Approximation Register Analog-to-Digital Converter
Saima Bashir, Suhaib Ahmed, Vipan Kakkar
Abstract - It is a well-known fact that Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) consume around 30% of the total power of the analog front end of a device. Hence, reducing the power consumption is the key step towards Low and Ultra Low power applications. One typical ADC that has been gaining attention for its capability of low power operation is Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC. In this paper, a survey of the state-of-theart experimental and the commercially available Successive Approximation Register (SAR) as a low power Analog to Digital Converter has been presented. This paper also discusses the various design techniques proposed till date to achieve this goal while keeping a close eye on their effect on the performance parameters of ADC. It is observed that there is a trade-off between power, area, resolution and sampling rate depending upon the design specifications and application required.
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25 Experimental Study on Compressive Strength of Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete by Using Manufactured Sand
Nandyala Anil, G. Mounika, Dr. T. Suresh Babu
Abstract - A huge quantity of concrete is consumed by the construction industry all around the world. In India, the conventional concrete is produced by using natural sand from river beds as fine aggregate. This result in the acute shortage of river sand and it will badly affect the construction sector. The promotional use of M-Sand will conserve the natural resources. Concrete is an Irreplaceable component in construction industry as of today. The need for improving performance of concrete is increasing day by day due to its huge usage throughout the world. Many improvements have been taking place in concrete, both chemically and minerally by using several additives. Most of the works on concrete have been on admixtures such as flyash, rice husk ash, stone dust etc., in the same way different fibres has been used to improve strength of concrete, especially to improve its strength during tensile loads. Glass fibre has been used as a replacement to M-sand in concrete by 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% to study the behavioral changes of concrete. Glass fibre reinforced concrete is made of a cementitious matrix composed of cement, sand and water in which short length glass fibres are dispersed.
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26 The Next Generation Passive Optical Network: A Review
Er. Parminder Kaur Brar, Er. Ramandeep Kaur, Er.Rajandeep Singh
Abstract - In this a review is given on the Next Generation Passive Optical Network (NG-PON). Recently, a WDM-PON system has gained significant attention to support high data rate transmission. To overcome the several effects occurring in optical transmission, OFDM has been introduced to improve the overall performance of the system. In this paper, NG-PON1 and NG-PON2 technology has been reviewed and studied their compatibility with the deployed networks, bandwidth efficiency, capacity and its efficiency for the cost. In it , the design principles and prospective technologies for NG-PONs has been described which introduced a views of NG-PON evolution, by focusing on the discussion and evaluation of various technologies. The discussion have been taken under the FSAN and ITU-T framework of NG-PON recommendations.
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