Welcome to International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Engineering Research (IJETER)

Volume 5, Issue 9, September (2017)

S.No Title & Authors Full Text
1 Flex Sensors Based Robotic ARM for Disabled Persons: A Review
Rizwanullah Siddiqui, Ritula Thakur
Abstract - In this paper, the studied of gesture recognition using flex sensors for disabled persons. It is used for accurate human hand gesture recognition and tracking. Since a flex sensor is better at tracking rapid movements, while a vision sensor is more stable and accurate for tracking slow movements, a novel adaptive algorithm provides accurate measurement of the robotic arm which is helpful for disabled persons or depending on human needs. The method is capable of reducing the velocity error and position of the robotic arm without any drift using flex sensors because of the high level of sensitivity.
2 Wavelet Based Image Compression Techniques: Comparative Analysis and Performance Evaluation
Umhara Rasool, Sanna Mairaj, Tamanna Nazeer, Suhaib Ahmed
Abstract - With the advent of digital information age there has been ever increasing demand of intensive multimedia based web applications, efficient techniques for encoding of images and signals. There are stronger efforts to develop better compression techniques with the sole objective to produce high compression performance while minimizing the amount of image data. Image compression is a technique to reduce redundancy and irrelevancy of image data to enable its efficient transmission and storage. With the help of image compression techniques, we can store more images in a given amount of disk or memory space. We can have lossy or lossless image compression depending upon the application. However, there is degradation in the quality of compressed image in comparison to original image in lossy compression techniques (discrete cosine transform, differential pulse coded modulation etc.). Lossless compression techniques do not deliver high enough compression ratios but exhibit better quality of reconstructed images in comparison to lossy techniques. Wavelet algorithm is one of the indispensable technique to achieve compression while fulfilling approximately all the challenges. It enables multi resolution analysis of data. In this paper, wavelet based compression techniques are studied in detail and a comparison of performance is made in terms of image quality metrics viz. PSNR, MSE, BPP and Compression ratio. Discrete wavelet transform is easier to implement in contrast to continuous wavelet transform. In addition to above, it also provides sufficient information for analysis and synthesis of images with a significant reduction in the computation time. In this paper, Haar, Daubechies, Biorthogonal, Coiflets and Symlet wavelets have been employed to an image and thereof results obtained are analyzed in terms of image quality metrics. In addition to it, a comparison of the image quality has been performed by using four wavelet-based encoding algorithms namely Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT), Embedded Zero Tree Wavelet (EZW), Wavelet Difference Reduction (WDR) and Adaptively Scanned Wavelet Difference Reduction (ASWDR). This paper is a guide to the developers to choose better wavelet compression system for their particular applications.
3 A Novel Technique for Detection of Copy Move Forgery Using MSER Features
Kanica Sachdev
Abstract - Digital image forgery detection is one of the most significant fields in image forensics. It refers to the editing or alteration of the image contents. Since an image may be presented as a legal proof of evidence, thus verifying its originality is of utmost importance. Recent improvements in image capturing devices and image editing softwares have made the process of forging images simple. The most common type of image forgery is copy move forgery. In this, a part or block of an image is copied and then pasted on the same image. The pasted area may be scaled or rotated to make the process of forgery detection difficult. The proposed technique uses MSER features to detect forgery in images. MSER features are stable and invariant to affine transformations. They are used in a number of applications for blob detection. In the introduced method, the extracted MSER features from the image are matched to find the forged areas in the image. The matched points correctly identify the copied and pasted areas of the altered image. The proposed method even detects forgery in the presence of rotation and scaling of forged area. It is a low complexity algorithm that is shown to perform efficiently on standard dataset.
4 A Review of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems
Tamanna Nazeer, Swastik Gupta, Shashi Bhushan Kotwal
Abstract - Due to ever increasing power demand and the environmental concerns associated with it, the interest in distributed energy generation systems (DG systems) based on solar energy is increasing. Using Photovoltaic (PV) modules, solar energy can be directly converted to electrical energy. In PV modules, the output voltage is DC and has low amplitude. In order to be connected to the grid; the PV modules output voltage should be boosted and converted into an AC voltage. This task can be performed by one or more conversion stages. Different topologies are used for this purpose. Also voltage power characteristic of PV array is non-linear and the power characteristic varies with the level of solar irradiation and temperature therefore making the extraction of maximum power from the PV panel a complex task. Thus, in order to overcome this problem, several methods called Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques for extracting the maximum power have been proposed in the literature and a careful comparison of these methods can result in important information for the design of these systems. This paper presents an overview of the existing power inverter topologies that have found practical applications for grid connected PV systems. In addition, paper presents a comparison of various power point tracking (MPPT) techniques serving as a convenient reference for future work in PV power generation.
5 Application of RSM to Optimize MIG welding Process Parameters for Hardness
Sahil Angaria, P. S. Rao, S. S. Dhami
Abstract - The present work is intended to optimize the existing MIG welding process parameters utilized by an industrial firm engaged in fabrication of generator set fuel tanks. The optimized process parameters will improve the overall weld quality by attaining desirable hardness of the fusion zone. Design of experiment based on Box Behnken Design of Response Surface Methodology was developed in Design Expert software, which was used for analysis of results.
6 Comprehensive Review on localization techniques for Wireless Sensor Network
Rashmi Chalia
Abstract - Wireless sensor network is one of the most developing areas. Various WSN applications are being used worldwide. In WSN, autonomous devices using sensors are being employed to monitor various physical and environmental conditions. The flexibility of wireless sensor networks comes with a wide range of challenges. Security, cost optimization, energy efficiency, accuracy are the major areas of study in this field. The most important challenge with WSN is the localization of nodes that needs optimization. Localization concept revolves the determination of the position of an object. Apart from the localization the problem also arise with the requirement of hardware which is costly and energy consuming. This paper presents comprehensive study done on various localization algorithms and a detailed study of Dv-Hop algorithm. Also, a concept of RSSI with Dv- hop will be a part of study later in this paper.
7 Economic Aspects of Urban Informal Workers in Kanyakumari - A Study of Street Vendors in Agastheeswaram Taluk
R. Ramalakshmi, V. Thiru Selvan
Abstract - The informal sector is a very important role in the economic development of developing countries like India. Existence since ancient times, especially in the street vendors in all civilization, ancient and medieval. One reads accounts of traveling merchants who not only sold their wares in the town by going from house to house but they also traded in neighboring countries. The term of "informal sector" was first coined by Keith Hart. There are many informal sectors in our country working for implantation of liberalization, privatization and Globalization there are several changes in the system and particularly with respect to informal sectors belonging to street vendors in Kanyakumari District, Nagercoil, Tamilnadu. There are many street vendors in the Kanyakumari district. The researchers use the sampling method to select 60 respondents for the present study. The findings of the study is briefly in full paper.
8 Effect of Susceptor Heating on Joining of Metallic Pipes Using Microwave Energy
Dhirendra N Gamit
Abstract - Joining of Metallic pipes are a prime requirement in the industries such as processing, oil and automotive etc. Many pipe joining processes were reported by the researchers but the producing sound and eco friendly joint is a concern for the industries. In pipe joining, rejection and rework of joint is a major concern this leads to consequently consumes more productive time and loss of energy. It has been reported that microwave (MW) energy can be used for joining of bulk metals. Usage of microwaves energy for joining of bulk metals have revealed that the process is capable enough to produce joints with lesser processing time, eco-friendly and energy saving process and the joints exhibit better mechanical and metallurgical properties than conventional joining processes. The attempt has been made to join MS pipes using microwave hybrid heating technique. This paper reports joining of mild steel (MS) pipes using micrometric size (40 um) of nickel powder as an interfacing material in a multimode MW applicator at 2.45 GHz. Different susceptor such as Silicon carbide (SiC), Graphite and Charcoal have been analysed for the joining of pipes at 1400 and 900 W microwave power. In susceptor heating, charcoal shows most efficient susceptor material which helps to produce good pipes joint at 900 W. A ceramic fixture was designed for holding and processing the required joints in MW applicator. The basic principles involved in the MW pipe joining process have been discussed. Further, initial experimental observations have been analyzed and results have been discussed.
9 Effects of Mg2+ ions on Structural, Optical and Mechanical properties of L-Alanine Sodium Sulphate Crystals
F.Praveena, S.L.Rayar, J.Jerry
Abstract - Single crystals of magnesium sulphate doped L-Alanine sodium sulphate (LASS) has been synthesized with different concentrations by slow evaporation technique.The effect of Mg2+ ions on the Structural property of LASS crystal was analysed by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction methods. The second harmonic generation efficiency (SHG) was measured by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. The transmission of electromagnetic radiation is analysed through UV-VIS spectrum. Microhardness was measured at different applied load to understand the mechanical stability of the crystal.
10 A Survey on Library Services and Adaptive Technology Solutions for Users with Disabilities - An Example: The Library and Documentation Center of Trakya University
Bahattin Demirelli, Ayse Tuna
Abstract - As it is known, in developed countries regulations and laws prohibit any kind of discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, communications, public accommodation, transportation, and governmental activities. Therefore, those regulations and laws have prompted both public and university libraries to evaluate services to their users and have brought forth a large number of resources on services to users with disabilities. This paper examines the current literature and presents a case study of the Library and Documentation Centre of Trakya University' efforts to understand and meet the needs of users with disabilities. Mainly, the case study is concerned with the establishment of novel approaches and adaptive technologies to meet the needs of visually impaired, blind, and learning disabled students, and on the ongoing efforts to improve the level of awareness among library staff. In addition, it identifies research challenges and presents future research directions.
11 Role of Hydraulic Fluid Pressure in Sheet Metal Forming
Dr.R.Uday Kumar
Abstract - The stamping of parts from sheet metal is a straightforward operation in which the metal is shaped or cut through deformation by shearing, punching, drawing, stretching, bending, coining, etc. Production rates are high and secondary machining is generally not required to produce finished parts within tolerances. This versatile process lends itself to low costs, since complex parts can be made in a few operations at high production rates. Sheet metal has a high strength-to-weight factor, enabling production of parts that are lightweight and strong. Hydroforming process is divided into two main groups; sheet hydroforming and tube hydroforming. Tube HydroForming (THF) is a process of forming hollow parts with different cross sections by applying simultaneously an internal hydraulic pressure and axial compressive loads to force a tubular blank to conform to the shape of a given die. Geometry of die and workpiece, initial tube dimension, tube anisotropy, and internal pressure are of the important parameters in this process .With the advancements in computer control and high-pressure hydraulic systems, this process has become a viable method for mass production, especially with the use of internal pressure up to 6000 bars. Tube hydroforming offers several advantages as compared to conventional manufacturing processes. Double-blank sheet hydroforming can be used as an alternative to sheet hydroforming with a die, because in both methods the sheet metal is forced against the die by the liquid medium. However, in double-blank sheet hydro-forming, two parts can be produced in one production cycle, which increases productivity. This process potentially allows the forming of two different materials and/or two different sheet thicknesses in one production cycle. Doubleblank sheet hydroforming is the potential to be practical for the production of relatively small batches of parts.
12 Experimental Study on Concrete with Partial Replacement of Cement by Mineral Admixtures
M. Jayagopal, Gift Pon Lazarus D
Abstract - The production of 1 tons of cement liberates 755 kg of carbon-dioxide has leads to increase in global warming, the usage of cement is keep on increasing due to the construction of structures, which is necessary for a country to improve it's infrastructures. The usage of cement should be reduced by replacing it, now a day's industries are developing in a rapid manner and the by- products from it are disposing as a waste in dumping yards. Mainly three major mineral admixtures of fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume are treated as waste products. Fly ash material has been using in construction field for replacement of cement up to 35%. This project is to increase that percentage of replacement by a suitable waste material. To achieve all the three by products mentioned above are mixed in a proportion of 60%, 30%, 10% of blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fume respectively. This combination will give better properties like standard cement then the individual replacement of byproducts. Then the cement manufacturing process is adapted for mixture by heating the mixture at a temperature of 1400oC, the clinker will form then the clinker is crushed and grained to get the fineness of cement. The mixture is tested for standard cement tests like specific gravity, consistency, initial and final setting time, loss on ignition, and chemical composition. The cement in concrete is replaced by obtained mixture by increment of 20% up to 100%. Then the concrete is tested for compression, split tensile, flexural strength test to find the performance of mixture in concrete.
13 Design and Implementation of Low Power LFSR for Fast ATPG Process
Shahataj Tabassum, Shilpa B.Darvesh
Abstract - In this paper, a new test pattern generation methodology is proposed to check the devices or circuits after manufacturing that takes advantage of shared memory multi-core systems which consumes less power and delay. Unlike the other test generation patterns this method generates the test patterns by Low Power LFSR using Gray code generator which consumes less power due to its less switching activity. This methodology is implemented in Half Adder and FIR filter circuits to check their functionality. This method is synthesized and simulated using Xilinx 14.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methodology achieves less power consumption and delay.
14 ASIC Implementation of Redundant Arithmetic CORDIC Processor
Katakam Supraja Harsha, T. Subha Sri Lakshmi
Abstract - In processing the real world data Digital Signal Processing algorithms provide unbeatable performance. One of the DSP algorithms is Coordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC). Actual time waving estimation, CORDIC act as a special purpose digital computer. The CORDIC is categorized in two different styles such as folded (sequential) and unfolded (combinational). This paper presents a novel architecture of CORDIC using redundant arithmetic i.e., RA-CORDIC. The RA-CORDIC structure shows better latency and obtains maximum throughput. The structure has been coded in VERILOG, synthesis analysis is performed using RTL compiler and Physical design is done using EDI tool.
15 Self-Similarity in Particle Production in Pb-Pb Collisions at 158 AGeV
Sunil Dutt
Abstract - In present work, we use the method of scaled factorial moments to analyze pseudorapidity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The analysis is done on photon distributions obtained using preshower photon multiplicity detector. Scaled factorial moments are used to study short range fluctuations in pseudorapidity distributions of photons. Scaled factorial moments are calculated using horizontal corrected and vertical analysis. The results are compared with simulation analysis using VENUS event generator. The essence of experimental ultra-relativistic heavy ion collision physics is the production and study of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy densities, temperatures and consequent search for equation of state of nuclear matter. For the present analysis, data from the Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) is used. The focus of the analysis has been to examine pseudo-rapidity distributions obtained for the ?-like particles in pre-shower photon multiplicity detector.We also attempt to model the fluctuations seen in the data using a simple multi-source model.This allows the extension of scaled factorial moment analysis to bin sizes smaller than those accessible to other experimental techniques. For a sample of 15000 central collisions, moments are calculated using both horizontal and vertical analysis techniques.
16 Delayed ACK Approach for TCP Performance Improvement for Ad Hoc Networks Using Chain Topology
Prashant Kumar Gupta, Dinesh Bhawnani, Dr. M.V. Padmavati
Abstract - TCP suffers from poor wireless channel characteristics due to which performance is decreased in an ad hoc network. In previous studies we have found that TCP data consume as much as Wireless Recourses as TCP ack packet which is used during transmission by the sender and receiver. In TCP transmission for each data packets, receiver generates one ack and if the ack and data packets uses the same path, than they can cause collision at some point of time. It will directly affect the throughput of the TCP. TCP delayed acknowledgment is a technique used by some implementations of the Transmission Control Protocol in an effort to improve network performance. Before explaining what Delayed ACK is, let's start by clarifying some concepts.
17 An Approach for Secured Medical Image Data and Information Transmission
Pallavi S. Lunge
Abstract - This paper presents the work related to the secured medical image transmission based on watermarking and encryption. User specific watermark is embedded into the LSB of original image. Embedding watermark in LSB doesn't affect the quality of image. This watermarked image is then encrypted by using a pixel repositioning algorithm. Each pixel is repositioned based on the remainder obtained after division by number 10. This remainder matrix acts as encryption key and is required at the time of decryption too. Exhaustive experiments are carried out on proposed approach. The results show that the watermark embedded is imperceptible and can be easily extracted at the receiver. Also the encrypted image has no visual significance with the original image and histogram of encrypted image is altered. Encrypted image can be decrypted without any loss of information from the image. From this decrypted image watermark can be extracted which suffers no loss in the watermark. PSNR values for a set of medical images are satisfying.
18 Influence of Geopolymers in the Stabilization of Clay Soil
A.Ayyappan, S.Palanikumar, D.Dinesh Kumar, M.Vinoth
Abstract - Soil stabilization means alteration of the soils properties to meet the specified engineering requirements. Searching for the best soil stabilizers to overcome problems occur by the soft soils are still being the main concern, not only to achieve the required soil engineering properties but also by considering the cost and the effect to the environment. Investigation on various materials had been done in order to evaluate their effectiveness as soil stabilizer. Others are causing hazardous effects on the environment and are most harmful to human health. Out of several techniques available for improving the shear strength, our project aims at probing the efficacy of Geopolymer a new eco-friendly binder material in improving the Strength Characteristics of Soft Clay and Sand Mixes. Geopolymer with its high strength, low cost, low energy consumption and CO2 emissions during synthesis, offers a promising alternative to the above discussed materials. In this study, metakaolin based geopolymer at different concentration (2% & 4% ) to examine the feasibility of geopolymer in stabilizing soils. Geopolymer stabilized soil specimens were characterized with Unconfined Compressive Strength test (UCS), Standard Proctors Compaction test. This study illustrated that metakaolin based geopolymer can be an effective soil stabilizer for clayey soil.
19 Towards Digital India Transformation: Pragmatic Implementation of 3 Dimensional Cyber Security Pyramid to Counter Cyber Attacks in India
Cosmena Mahapatra, Meenu Chopra
Abstract - Digital India is a dream that every Indian supports. This has not only made life easier but also transparent thus paving way for a corruption free future. However recent cyber-attacks have raised awareness in Indian digital word for more pragmatic anti cyber terrorism course of action. These may encompass techniques such as Machine Learning and Sentiment Analysis. This paper presents a three dimensional architectural view of implementing various IT policies and techniques which assure a safe cyber future and a smooth digital transformation in India.
20 Design & Optimization of Double Girder Electric Overhead Travelling Crane: A Review
Devi Lal, Dr.B.S Pabla, Sh. Atul Kumar Singh
Abstract - Electric Overhead Travelling (EOT) cranes are major material handling equipments in any heavy engineering industry. The main purpose of this review paper is for structural analysis of overhead crane girder using FEM (Finite Element Method). Gantry crane beam was subjected to many types of load. Beam girder is the decisive assembly component of the overhead crane assembly. Existing research was focused to improve the strength structure of overhead crane girder with different types of techniques. These hard work help, to defeat overhead crane girder failure. FEM gives economical solutions for overhead crane girder failure during the loading condition. In the existing studies, analyzers uses various types of approach such as, FEA, FEM, PIM (Precise Integration Method), Micro Structural Characterization, Fractography, Numerical Simulations etc.

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