Welcome to International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Engineering Research (IJETER)


Volume 6, Issue 2, February (2018)

S.No Title & Authors Full Text
1 Performance Analysis of Biodiesel Blends of Surahonne and Dairy Scum Waste on I.C Engine
Punithkumar Y. K, Mohamed Khaiser, B.S.Mahesh, Yogesh Kumar K J
Abstract - Every human starts their life with consuming energy for his particular purpose to attain the respective task but in that, generally present situation is very tough to handle consuming of energized petroleum fuel for man usage because of rapid depleting of fossil fuel source, increasing population density and formation of petroleum fuel source will take more than thousands of year. So that man has focused on finding alternative fuel for petroleum fuel (pure diesel) from the other sources such as natural gas, waste vegetables oils, animal fat oil ect. Particularly alternative fuel extracted from natural resources commonly known as 'biodiesel' like pongamiya penatta, jatropha, neem, simaroubha, surahonne, waste cooking oil, dairy waste scum oil ect. In this study, the experimental were conducted to investigate and characterization of biodiesel blends of surahohonne (SHB) and diary scum biodiesel (DSB) and their effect on performance of single cylinder four stroke cycle diesel engines by preparing the blends to volume ratio such as SHB20, SHB40, DSB20, DSB40, equally volume of both surahonne and dairy scum biodiesel was blended to a proportion as SDB20 and SDB40. It is evident that B40 surahonne (SHB) has the higher mechanical efficiency, higher brake thermal efficiency and minimum brake specific fuel consumption as compared to B20 surahonne, B20 and B40 dairy scum biodiesel.
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2 Arduino Based Cost Effective CNC Plotter Machine
Puja Girhe, Shubham Yenkar, Arpita Chirde
Abstract - Due to the rapid growth of technology the usage & utilization of CNC machine in industries are increased. The fabrication of low cost CNC machine is used to reduce cost and complexity of machine. This paper deals with the design of automatic mini CNC machine for PCB drawing and drilling. The Idea behind our project is to design and drill PCB based on low cost CNC system the lower cost is achieved by incorporating features of PC with ATMEGA 328 controller in an arduino. We have use an G code for whole system operation G code is nothing but a language in which people tell computerized machine tools 'How to make something'. The How is defined by instructions on where to move & how fast to move.
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3 Performance Comparison and FPGA Synthesis of MNLMSNCMA Adaptive Beamforming Algorithm
Imtiyaz Ahmed B.K, Dr. Fathima Jabeen, Dr. Thangadurai
Abstract - The utility of the Smart antenna has proven to be successful in the domain of wireless communication system design. Beamformer is considered as the potential entity that enables the smart antenna functionality. Performance of the smart antenna largely depends on the nature and characteristics of beamforming algorithm and technique adopted in the design of beamformer. Developments in the field of software tools for simulation and synthesis of algorithms have made possible for their application in the system design process. In this paper a new hybrid adaptive beamforming algorithm known as modified normalized least mean square- normalized constant modulus algorithm (MNLMSNCMA) is presented. Further, the proposed MNLMSNCMA algorithm is synthesised followed by its simulation using Matlab and Mentor Graphics tools. The simulation results in terms of array response gain and resource utilization for Altera's Cyclone V device is presented. It was observed that the proposed MNLMSNCMA algorithm provides increased gain of major beam and reduced gain of side lobes compare to CMLMS algorithm.
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4 Effect of Calcination Temperature on Pure Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles by Precipitation Method
S. Sebastiammal, A. Lesly Fathima, V. Shally, Gerardin Jayam
Abstract - Cerium oxide is the most exciting rare earth element for researchers in the field of catalysis. Cerium oxide also known as ceria is produced by various methods chosen by the desired properties of the product. Cerium oxide is an important functional material which contributes to a wide range of applications. In the present study, pure CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method. The size of pure CeO2 nanoparticles before and after calcinations were estimated by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern and it was revealed that pure CeO2 crystallizes into cubic phase. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study shows the prominent UV emission peak occurs at 320nm. The chemical structural information of the synthesized as nanoparticles was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
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5 A Secure and Dynamic Multi-Keyword Ranked Search Scheme over Encrypted Cloud Data
Srishailam Agirishetty, G Anitha, Dr. Shaik Abdul Nabi
Abstract - In context of the building up comprehensiveness of scattered setting up, a routinely broadening number of data proprietors are engaged to outsource their data to cloud servers for astounding convenience and decreased cost in data affiliation. In any case, tricky data should be encoded before outsourcing for security necessities, which obsoletes data utilize like watchword based record recuperation. In this paper, we show an ensured multi-catchphrase orchestrated look devise over mixed cloud data, which in the meantime invigorates dynamic engage operations like cancelation and advancement of stories. We build up an exceptional tree-based record structure and propose a "Covetous Depth-first Search" computation to give productive multi-watchword masterminded scan for. The safe kNN figuring is utilized to scramble the chronicle and question vectors, and meanwhile ensure adjust tremendousness score estimation between encoded record and request vectors.
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6 Replacement of Coarse and Fine Aggregate by waste Ceramic Tiles and Ceramic Powder in Concrete
B.Magesh, M.Jayagopal
Abstract - Concrete is an advanced material in civil engineering. It is binding material made with cement, fine aggregate, course aggregate and admixtures in some cases. Nowadays developments of construction field, the worldwide consumption of natural materials is very high and at the same time production of solid waste from the destructions and production units are also very high. Extensive use of concrete leads to the lack of natural materials. Because of this reasons the recycle of destructions wastes and solid waste from the production of came in to the picture to decrease the solid wastes from destructions and production units and as well as to decrease the lack of natural basic materials. The current option of dumping for this type of unused is landfill. Unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, lack of knowledge and experience led to there being no active usage of ceramic wastes in construction. Ceramic wastes are classified as non-recyclable wastes in South Africa, except for the normal use as filling material. Based on research regarding ecological Construction and Destructions (C&D) wastes, ceramic wastes have the potential to be used in concrete production. There are no guiding principle and criteria to the usage of waste in solid. In addition, the local industry does not have knowledge and experience to utilize the material.
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7 Development of Friction Stirred Functionally Graded Material using a Numerical Model Analysis
Himasekhar sai B.V
Abstract - Functionally Graded Material (FGM) belongs to a new class of advanced material characterized by gradual variation in composition and the mechanical properties. The overall properties of the FGM are unique and different from the individual material used. Previous investigations show that various techniques such as powder metallurgy, centrifugal method, vapor deposition techniques, solid freeform fabrication methods and friction stir processing etc. have been used to fabricate the FGM. In order to overcome the control over the composition, the present study presents a method to fabricate Functional Graded Material using Friction Stir Processing (FSP) and hole drilling electrical discharge machine (EDM). Holes are drilled on an aluminum plate and filled with Alumina nano-particles of size (<50nm) and stirred using FSP. A mathematical model for positioning of holes in order to acquire a range of maximum to minimum composition of nano particles over a given length is presented. By aligning FSP seem tool center to hole center, multi-pass FSP is carried out to understand the material flow and mixing. The hardness variation along the direction parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the surface and along the depth is measured. The mathematical model is applied to different combinations of composition ranges and is evaluated under different conditions.
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8 Processing and Mechanical Behavior of TiB2 and ZnSt2 Reinforced Aluminium Alloy 6061 Hybrid Composite using Stir Casting
Arvinder Singh Channi, H.S. Bains, S. C. Vettivel, J. S. Grewal
Abstract - Aluminium Alloy 6061 is reinforced with TiB2 of average particle size 8.915 microns and Zinc Stearate (ZnSt2) of 8.9 microns. ZnSt2 is a better solid lubricant and it is preheated and directly injected into the crucible during the stir casting process. Stirring of the molten melt and reinforcements are carried out using graphite stirrer within the graphite crucible. The characterization is performed through the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrum (EDS). SEM analysis confirms that there is a uniform distribution of reinforcements in the hybrid composite. EDS is used to confirm the elements in hybrid composite. The experimental result confirms that the hardness increases with increasing the volume % of reinforcements and some useful conclusions are made.
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9 Automatic Wall Painting Machine
Utkarsha S. Bawane, Ritesh D. Bakkar, Dhananjay V. Bansod, Abhilash J. Khandar, Roshan R. More
Abstract - The use of spraying robotized systems for interior painting was already shown to be feasible and convenient, a lot of experiments must be carried out in the future to deliver a highly autonomous robot for interior painting. We developed an exterior wall painting robot for the purpose of automating this painting operation. The robot is mounted on equipment which permits it to move up and down, left and right along the exterior walls of a building. It is computer controlled and is activated simply by the operator pressing a switch on the control panel located on the ground. Automatic Wall Painting Robot which helps to achieve less human interaction and low cost painting equipment. Despite the advances in robotics and its wide spreading applications, interior wall painting has shared little in research activities. Despite the fact that the utilization of spreading robotized frameworks for inside painting was at that point indicated to be attainable and helpful, a ton of tests must be completed later on to convey an exceedingly self-governing robot for inner part painting.
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10 Automation in Wall Painting Robot
Utkarsha S. Bawane, Ritesh D. Bakkar, Dhananjay V. Bansod, Abhilash J. Khandar, Roshan R. More
Abstract - Although the use of spraying robotized systems for interior painting was already shown to be feasible and convenient, a lot of experiments must be carried out in the future to deliver a highly autonomous robot for interior painting. The primary aim of the project is to design, develop and implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot which helps to achieve low cost painting equipment. Despite the advances in robotics and its wide spreading applications, interior wall painting has shared little in research activities. The painting chemicals can cause hazards to the human painters such as eye and respiratory system problems. Also the nature of painting procedure that requires repeated work and hand rising makes it boring, time and effort consuming. When construction workers and robots are properly integrated in building tasks, the whole construction process can be better managed and savings in human labour and timing are obtained as a consequence.
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11 Embedding Realtime Multilevel Gas Leakage Control System
Shrikant Gundapure, Ankush Deole, Nikita Kalaskar, Dipali Wankhade, Sweta Dasarwar, Nikhil Mundane
Abstract - Gas leakage has been a major concern in recent times. Though its usage has been extended in various industries, a small unattended leakage can lead to catastrophic damage. Thus the Project titled on "Embedding Real Time Multilevel Gas Leakage Control System", can be used for the prevention of leakage threatening over Multilevel Pipeline system. This project involves the detection of gas leakage using sensors placed at regular intervals and gas leakage block is done by implementing Solenoid Valve to stop the gas passage through the pipeline to avoid excess leakage. In addition to automatic shutdown of gas flow of a single user pipeline in a multilevel based system, an alert message will be sent to the user and also to gas helpline number '1906' through GSM module provided along with a SIM card of any network providers. As the fulfillment of the project is been established using Arduino MEGA Processor, an immediate response for multilevel usage and Maximum efficiency is achieved.
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12 Effects of Agro-Industrial Residues on Dual Fuel Mode in CI Engine
M.Mathanmohan, S.Vivekanandan
Abstract - In this study, a fluidized bed gasifier with a capacity of 20kg/h was designed and developed to use agro-industries residues such as rice husk (RH) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) as a feed stock are used in this investigation. The objective of this work was to generate better gas efficiency based on equivalence ratio, particle size by optimum parameters such as a reactor temperature (t), equivalence ratio (e), pressure (p), feed size (fs) and fuel consumption rate (fc) with the help of design matrix to find the optimum condition and by performing the experimental work for generating producer gas (PG) use to drive the CI engine on dual fuel mode with minor modification in engine inlet manifold. This report also reveals the performance of CI engine coupled with gasifier to operate in dual-fuel mode. The full potentiality of biomass for gasification was successfully investigated furthermore, the producer gas from two feed materials used as dual fuel mode with diesel to run single cylinder four stroke water cooled engine with a rated power and speed of 3.75kw and 1500 rpm respectively. By considered variables performance such as break thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. This study also includes the feasibility of producer gas used as secondary fuel with diesel for different feed materials, considered in this work for the optimum process parameters.
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13 Strength Properties of the Geopolymer Concrete as Partial Replacement of Recycled Aggregate
Nella Shiva Kumar, Gone Punneshwar
Abstract - Due to the critical shortage of natural aggregate, the availability of demolished concrete for use as recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) is increasing. Using the waste concrete as RCA conserves natural aggregate, reduces the impact on landfills, decreases energy consumption and can provide cost savings. Recycled aggregates are the materials for the future. The application of recycled aggregate has been started in many countries for construction projects. This Research Paper reports the basic properties of recycled coarse aggregate. It also compares these properties with natural aggregates. Basic changes in all aggregate properties were determined. Basic concrete properties like compressive strength, workability etc. are explained here for different combinations of recycled course aggregate with natural aggregate. In general, present status & utilization of recycled coarse aggregate in India with their future need is discussed. Recycled coarse Aggregate (RCA) is sourced from local construction and demolition waste. The RCA is used as a partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate (NCA) in fly ash slag based geo polymer concrete at 0%, 10% , 20% , 30% , 40% and 50% by wt. While the fly ash slag based geopolymer concrete containing 100% NCA is control and is considered as the first series. Fly ash & GGBS is used as the source material for the geo polymer and 10 M sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate alkali activators are used to synthesize the fly ash slag based geopolymer in this study. In all elastic modulus of above geo polymer concrete are measured at 7 , 28 and 56 days, while sorptivity, immersed water absorption and volume of permeable voids of above geopolymer concrete are measured at 28 days.
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14 A Study on Human Resource Management and the Implementation of HRM Practices of the Faculities and their Colleges in K.K.District
Dr. N. Jeba Jasmine
Abstract - It is an acknowledged fact that the utmost asset of any institution is its Human Resources (HRs). These resources perform a pivotal role in achieving the institutional goals. The institution's administration cannot achieve the desired goals without the proper utilization of HRs.Even after the world wide realization that Human Resources formed the critical asset for an institutional effectiveness, the same mind-set did not hold well with human resource department or establishment department in Indian HEIs. Since Independence, unfortunately, the Indian Government have yet does not have a decisive policy regarding Human Resource Management (HRM) which could dramatically improve the prevailing situation. That's why Higher Education Institution (HEI) have not been able to accomplish their institutional objectives and enhance their teacher's work performance which is required in this competitive word.
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15 Effect of Shape and Plan Configuration on Seismic Response of Structure
Kadali Deepika Rani, B. Anup
Abstract - Tremor is a critical perspective to be considered while planning structures. Parcel of work has been accounted for by numerous specialists who attempted to think about the impact of structures with sporadic arrangement and shape. Being enlivened from the work contributed in the investigation on impacts of seismic tremor on sporadic formed working in design, this paper presents impacts of plan and shape arrangement on unpredictable molded structures. Structures with sporadic geometry react diversely against seismic activity. Plan geometry is the parameter which chooses its execution against various stacking conditions. The impact of abnormality (plan and shape) on structure have been completed by utilizing auxiliary investigation programming STAAD Pro. V8i. There are a few components which influence the conduct of working from which story float and sidelong dislodging assume a vital part in understanding the conduct of structure. Results are communicated in type of diagrams and bar outlines. It has been seen from the exploration that straightforward arrangement and setup must be embraced at the arranging stage to limit the impact of seismic tremor.
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16 Oxygen Level Sustainer
D.Ruchitha Reddy, P. Kavitha Reddy, T.Vasudeva Reddy
Abstract - Car interior atmosphere must always be favorable for the passengers to Survive. But if the passengers inside the car experience any of these situations like increased level of Co2, A/C compartment leakage, for a prolonged time all windows of the car are closed with passengers in it then it slowly pave the way to unpleasant situation that is hazardous for the passengers to survive and finally leads to death. All over the world these situation prevailed and are still prevailing. Thus this proposed embedded solution is an alert system that monitors the toxic gases inside the enclosed space. The oxygen and carbon dioxide level indicator, MSP microcontroller and GSM are used for the better monitoring alert system. This alert system automatically opens the windows of the car with the help of the motor using the timer for the safety of passengers inside. This proposed system is applicable in automobiles as well as in industrial purposes.
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17 Study on Effect of Voids on the Mechanical Properties of CFRP Composite
Praveen S B, Vinay D R, Lakshminarasimha N
Abstract - Composites are materials created by combining dissimilar materials with a view to improve their properties or to create materials with desired properties. This project synthesizes our work on voids in Carbon/polymeric (composite) laminates. During manufacturing, there are chances of formation of voids which hampers the performance of the component with respect to its mechanical properties. The aim of work carried out upon carbon G939 is to obtain void content acceptability criteria enabling quality control cost to be reduced to a large extent. After carrying out ILSS and Flexural strength tests, it is concluded that the permissible acceptance range of voids should be within 3.5%. This range enables the composite part manufacturer to reduce the total production and quality control costs.
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18 Design and Fabrication of Paddy Weeder with Fertilizer Feeder
Vinay D R, Praveen S B
Abstract - In this modern era research in the agricultural field is going on. Day by day the population of India is increasing and to fulfill the need of food, modernization of agricultural sectors is important. Mechanization gives higher productivity in minimum input. Farmers are using same traditional methods. Paddy is one of the major crops grown in India. The problems in paddy cultivation are availability of labors, low productivity rate and more manual efforts required for fertilizer feeding and weeding. For paddy cultivation, more time is required because of fertilizer feeding and weeding processes. For reducing these problems design and fabrication of paddy weeder with fertilizer feeder is done. This is an agricultural equipment which is useful for farmer, this equipment is known as weeder with fertilizer feeder. This machine is designed first in solid edge and then fabricated. The weeder will remove weeds between two rows. It will remove multiple weeds in less time along with this fertilizer are uniformly distributed to each crop through dispensers, so two operations are completed simultaneously. Therefore, it reduces the manpower, labour cost and also time.
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19 Literature Review of Grass Cutter Machine
Kartik R. Khodke, Himanshu Kukreja, Sumit Kotekar, Nital kukade, C. J. Shende
Abstract - This paper summarizes and reviews technological development for making efficient and cost effective grass cutter. Our aim is to study the various developments in the grass cutter machines and their performance. Current technology commonly used for cutting the grass by the manually handled device From the survey we found that various types of grass cutter available in market which are run by means of solar, electric and internal combustion engine. Grass cutters are available in market having some limit to cut grass at some height. We are trying to make the new innovative concept mainly used in agricultural field. We are going to fabricate the grass cutting machine for the use of agricultural field, to cut the crops in the field as well as to cut the grass.
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20 Enhanced VLSI Architecture of Partial Product Generator using Redundant Binary Modified Partial Product Generator Method
J. Ravichander, Gunde Mounika
Abstract - Adders are the key component of the arithmetic unit, particularly quick parallel addition. Redundant Binary Signed Digit (RBSD) adders are intended to perform high-speed arithmetic operations. For the most part, in a high radix adjusted Booth encoding calculation partial products are lessened in augmentation process. A redundant Binary (RB) representation can be utilized when designing high performance multipliers, because of its high measured quality and convey free option, The traditional RB multiplier re quires an extra RB partial product (RBPP) row, on the grounds that error correcting word (ECW) is created by both the radix-4 Modified Booth encoding (MBE) and the RB encoding. This brings about in an extra RBPP accumulation stage for the MBE multiplier. Another RB altered partial product generator RBMPPG is proposed; it expels the additional ECW and consequently, it spares one RBPP RBPP accumulation stage. In this way, the proposed RBMPPG creates less halfway item pushes than a regular RB MBE multiplier. Simulation results show that the proposed RBMPPG generates fewer partial product rows than a conventional RB MBE multiplier. Simulation results show that the proposed RBMPPG based designs significantly improve the area and power consumption when the word length of each operand in the multiplier is at least 32 bits.
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21 Regression Modelling and GRA, RSM Comparison Between Parameters and Performance Characteristics in a TOBV
Vinayak Balehittal
Abstract - Triple offset butterfly valves are widely used in hydraulic, sewage, oil and gas pipelines. Seating torque and deformation of the disc are the important characteristics to be considered during the assessment of flow performance of butterfly valves. In order to minimize the leakage in pipelines, the offset concept was introduced in butterfly valves by designers. Even though some of the researchers have studied the effect of offset on sealing characteristics of butterfly valves, studies considering the effect of offsets on the performance characteristics such as seating torque and deformation of the disc have not been reported yet. Hence the present project focuses on parametric study of triple offset butterfly valves in order to maximize the flow performance and hence achieve optimal combinations of valve parameters. The overall objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of offset in a TOBV on the characteristics of the valve like seating torque and disc deformation. The geometry considered for this purpose is TOBV DN100 CLASS150 valve. Triple offset butterfly valve CAD model was generated using SOLIDWORKS V 13. The same CAD model was then imported to ANSYS Workbench platform to conduct static structural analysis of the valves. Simulation runs were designed based on Taguchi's Orthogonal Array approach. The offset having the maximum influence on seating torque and disc deformation were evaluated. A regression model for seating torque and disc deformation was also developed indicating good correlation. The optimal combination of offset levels for minimum seating torque and minimum disc deformation were also evaluated through Grey Relation Analysis and Response Surface Methodology. Both were found to be in good agreement.
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22 Approximate Dimensional Synthesis of Watt-I Mechanism based on Twenty Precision Points Path Generation
Khalid Nafees
Abstract - In this paper, a six-bar, single degree of freedom, Watt-I mechanism has been dimensionally synthesized to solve the problem of path generation. The mechanism consists of revolute pairs and is capable to trace the prescribed path which comprises of twenty precision points. In the synthesis process, the standard dyad/triad and analytical loop closure equations are generated in terms of complex number mathematics. A MATLAB code is used to solve these equations for twenty coupler displacement positions and determine the lengths and orientations of various links of the mechanism. The overall dimensional synthesis of Watt-I mechanism has been demonstrated on a numerical example. SAM application software is also employed to verify the results.
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23 Artificial Neural Network Based Stresses Prediction of Glass Fibre Orientated Polymer Laminates
V Dushyanth Kumar, Y Seetha Ramarao
Abstract - The mechanical properties of GFRP laminates by using hand lay-up and press moulding fabrication techniques, the testing samples are prepared as per ASTM-D882, ASTM- D790, ASTM-D785 standard by varying orientation from experimentation. These specimens are tested under tensile test, flexural test (three-point bend test) and hardness test. The results of tensile strength, percentage of elongation, flexural strength, flexural modulus and hardness of the composite were used as the inputs for the MATLAB coding. However, the highest values respectively suggesting fibre orientation for effective and maximum stress transfer in laminated composites. The prediction values for the tests of three different orientations are obtained from both linear interpolation and Spline interpolation MATLAB coding.
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24 Soret and Dufour Effects on MHD Flow of Sisko Fluid over a Stretching Sheet with Non-Uniform Heat Source/Sink
K. Bhagya Lakshmi, V. Sugunamma, J V Ramana Reddy
Abstract - Heat source/sink may change the heat distribution in the fluid which consequently affects the particle deposition rate in the system such as semiconductors, electronic devices and nuclear reactors, etc. In view of this, we studied the impact of non- uniform heat source/sink on the magnetohydrodynamic flow of Sisko fluid over a stretching sheet with cross diffusion effects. The convective type boundary condition of temperature is taken into account. The transformed set of non-linear ordinary differential equations is solved by using Runge-Kutta based shooting technique. The influence of various flow parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration fields is presented and analyzed through graphs. Also, the wall friction factor coefficient and the rate of heat and mass transfer coefficients are derived and discussed through tables. It is noticed that thermo-diffusion and diffusion-thermo effects show significant effect on fluid flow.
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25 Preliminary Study of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coating of Injection Moulded Cobalt based Femoral Hip Stem
Mohd Afian Omar, Noorsyakirah Abdullah, Rosliza Sauti
Abstract - Coating of the implant has specific functions ranging from improving fixation by establishing strong interfacial bonds, shelding the metallic implant from environmental attack or leaching effects and promoting fast tissue growth. Some important coating characteristics that are generally expected of biomedical coatings are good biocompatibility of the desire phase and crystallinity, good coating integrity and adequate porosity. In this paper, hydroxyapatite coating of newly developed injection moulded hip stem prototype has been evaluated and discussed. The effect of current during plasma spray process has been investigated.
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26 Optimal Allocation of Capacitor in Radial Distribution System using PSO
Pralhad D. Talmale, Rufaiza. P. k. Quazi, Adarsh R. Dahat, Namita V. Wankhade, Ashwini B. Nagdevte
Abstract - The losses at distribution level contribute a major portion of power system losses. Proper sizes of shunt capacitors in unbalanced radial distribution systems can reduce some portion of this loss and can improve the voltage profile of the feeder section. The PSO-DV approach consists of classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and differential evolution approach in combination. For capacitor placement problem, the power losses occurring in the system are minimized while voltage profile is improved. Initially to find site of capacitor allocation, candidate nodes using sensitivity analysis reactive power injection is done. Then PSO-DV is implemented to find size and number of capacitors considering minimization of power losses as an optimization problem.
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27 Effects of Tool Material and Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Friction Welded Joints- AL Alloys (AA6061-T6)
S.Suthagar, Balasubramani N, Arunagiri
Abstract - AA6061 alloy has Excellent joining characteristics, good acceptance of applied coatings; this combines relatively high strength, good workability, high resistance to corrosion, and good weldability. H13 Hot Work Tool Steel has High hardenability, excellent wear resistance hot toughness, and good thermal shock resistance all the mentioned properties make it a perfect selection for friction stir welding tool and this material can tolerate some water cooling in service. Nitriding will improve hardness, but can diminish shock resistance if hardened layer is too thick. HSS-M2 and D3 are also similar tool steels which are considered in this study as FSW tool materials for experimentation. Current work deals with the experimental investigation on effects of post weld heat treatment on the mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints of Aluminium alloys. In order to study the effect of post weld heat treatment a design of experiment is conducted and a set of experiments are defined. Experimental trials were conducted with three different tool materials of different hardness with and without post weld heat treatment. Mechanical properties are studied as per the standard procedure defined by American welding society. Post weld heat treatment improves the ductility of the weld joints thus increases the flexibility to use the welded joints in many new applications like explosion forming.
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